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In this definition, individuals is a broad term that can refer to people as well as other organizational elements. Most examples in this book involve predicting people, such as customers, debtors, applicants, employees, students, patients, donors, voters, taxpayers, potential suspects, and convicts.

Predictive analytics also applies to individual companies (e.g., for business-to-business), products, locations, restaurants, vehicles, ships, flights, deliveries, buildings, manholes, transactions, Facebook posts, movies, satellites, stocks, Jeopardy! questions, and much more.

It takes characteristics (variables) of the individual as input and provides a predictive score as output. The higher the score, the more likely it is that the individual will exhibit the predicted behavior. (Basically, a mathematical equation) 3. Artificial Intelligence

Advanced machine capabilities that are by definition impossible to achieve since, once achieved, they have necessarily been trivialized (by way of being mechanized) and are therefore not impressive in the subjective sense of intelligence, so they no longer qualify. (Qualify for what?)

A type of predictive model that predicts the influence on an individual’s behavior that results from applying one treatment over another. Synonyms include: differential response, impact, incremental impact, incremental lift, incremental response, net lift, net response, persuasion, true lift, or true response model.

For more information, see the article Personalization Is Back: How to Drive Influence by Crunching Numbers (which includes links for further reading at the end), Chapter 7 of Predictive Analytics, and, for more technical citations, the Notes corresponding to that chapter, which may be downloaded as a PDF. 5. Vast Search

The term that industry leader (and Chapter 1 predictive investor) John Elder coined for predictive modelings intrinsic automation of testing many predictor variables and the associated peril of stumbling across a correlation with the target variable that may be perceived as significant if considered in isolation without considering the search that was employed to unearth it.

Synonyms include: multiple comparisons trap, multiple hypothesis testing, researcher degrees of freedom, over-search (akin to over-fit), look-elsewhere effect, the garden of forking paths, fishing expedition, cherry-picking findings, data dredging, significance chasing, and p-hacking. (Domain of statistical analysis methods and tools)

In law enforcement, the identification of previously unknown potential suspects by applying predictive analytics to flag and rank individuals according to their likelihood to be worthy of investigation, either because of their direct involvement in, or relationship to, criminal activities. (Biases related to racist behaviors, elite classes world view, and mental training?)

Using it, law enforcement can hunt scientifically, more effectively targeting its search by applying predictive analytics, the same state-of-the-art, data-driven technology behind fraud detection, financial credit scoring, spam filtering, and targeted marketing. ( Application to target specific classes of people, and saying that science is supporting the actions)