2018 Made history school of international service american university, washington, dc electricity song

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When then- attorney general Jeff Sessions announced the “zero tolerance” policy at the US border with Mexico last April, it signaled a new and dangerous escalation in the Trump Administration’s attempts to curb the flow of immigrants to this country. I thought then that separating parents from their children and housing the children in separate detention facilities masquerading as summer camps represented the lowest point we would see this year. And when a federal judge in June ordered those families reunited within 30 days, I believed that saner heads had prevailed and some sense of American values would emerge in our policies for migrants at the southern border. q gastrobar I was wrong.

By late October, the US military had deployed 5,000 troops to the border in an action supposedly sparked by the migrant caravan from Central America. It is some comfort that the Pentagon resisted White House entreaties for our military to serve as law enforcement and instead restricted themselves to supporting border authorities with logistical tasks like laying razor wire. However, the situation escalated again on November 25, when US border agents used tear gas to repel a group of 500 attempting to cross the border. Among that number were women–some of whom had children with them who were barefoot and still in diapers. The shameful images emerging from that day will rank as one of the true low points in the history of a nation of immigrants.

US Middle East policy took a sharp turn in the past year, eliminating the previous US role as “honest broker” and regional balancer. The administration took sides, lining up solidly in support of Saudi Arabia by selling arms, supporting the Saudi war in Yemen, encouraging the Saudi’s to confront Iran and its activities in the region, and giving Prince Mohammed bin Salman a clear pass, rather than hold him responsible for the assassination of journalist Jamal Khashoggi in the Saudi embassy in Istanbul. gas stoichiometry formula The administration also took sides in the Israel/Palestine conflict, moving the US embassy to Jerusalem and freezing US support for the Palestinian Authority and the UN refugee effort in the Palestinian territories. While the US supported the largely Kurdish forces taking down ISIS in Syria, the US became the odd man out in post-conflict Syria discussions, which are led by the Turks, Russians and Iranians, along with the Assad regime. Increasingly, these changes in policy are marginalizing the ability of the US to remain a power broker in the region.

On April 2, Abiy Ahmed Ali, known widely as Dr. Abiy, assumed the office of prime minister of Ethiopia and chairmanship of the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) ruling coalition party. His ascension has been nothing less than a watershed moment for the Horn of Africa, and many Ethiopians at home and in the diaspora feel he has ushered in a new era for the region. electricity transmission efficiency Three months after taking office, he and Eritrean president Isaias Afwerki signed a “Joint Declaration of Peace and Friendship” declaring an end to tensions and an opening of travel and communication between the two countries. Throughout the summer, airports and hotels in Asmara, Addis Ababa, Mekelle, and elsewhere were filled with the cries and embraces of thousands of families, reunited after many years of war. Dr. Abiy has continued to make revolutionary appointments within the government, including several women from various ethnic groups, and women whose careers have been built outside EPRDF party politics. Tensions, however, remain. electricity 1800s As Dr. Abiy promises to upend many power structures in the country, he has survived assassination attempts and remains unable to solve political conflicts in contested areas of the country.

In October, following disappointing local election results, Angela Merkel announced that she would not run for re-election as German Chancellor in 2021. This marks the end of an era. Since taking over as Chancellor in 2005 and as the longest serving head of government in the European Union, Merkel’s centrist and moderate leadership at home helped Germany experience impressive economic growth. Abroad, Merkel became a vigorous defender of the international liberal order and took a leading role in navigating the many crises that afflicted the EU, most noticeably the Eurozone crisis and the refugee crisis. It remains to be seen if anyone can fill that leadership void, whether in Germany or in Europe. -Garret Martin

With her announcement in late October that she will step aside as the leader of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) in December 2018 and will not run for Chancellor in 2021, Europe will be left without a clear defender of the liberal international order for the first time since the fall of the Berlin Wall. Merkel was Europe’s longest-serving head of state (first elected as Chancellor in 2005). ag gaston funeral home birmingham al She consistently defended a multilateral approach to trade and defense, was a staunch supporter of European integration, and also defended and enhanced the German-American transatlantic partnership during her tenure. With the UK in the midst of Brexit, French President Macron new to the European political scene and mired in domestic political conflict, and the rise of right-wing populist leadership across Central and Eastern Europe (as well as in Italy), there is no clear successor to Merkel and her efforts to champion European integration and multilateralism as the surest way to prevent Europe and the world from devolving back into the conflict and violence that characterized the 20th century. -Aaron Boesenecker