3.7 – Printers what will we print next – dell technologies bad gas 6 weeks pregnant

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“10-22-38 Astoria.” That’s the opening salvo of the story of photocopying. All it took was a penniless law student, a lightbulb, an electrically-charged plate and some buckets of sulfur powder to make it possible. It radically changed the way we communicate overnight, and it’s entirely possible that had that law student never come up with it, no one would have, and had a Rochester, New York-based company not been so bent on differentiating itself from neighboring competitor Kodak, it’s entirely possible no one would’ve bought into it. That company was named Haloid. You might know them today as Xerox. 80 years later, Xerography is still going strong. Connecting the dots.

It started in a casino. To prevent skimming and fraud, a serial problem-solver set out to poke an ink ribbon hole on a poker chip, giving each a unique code. This was the genesis of the dot-matrix printer, the charmingly loud office companion that made a lot of noise in the computing industry. Now anyone could print a variety of texts at home or work, albeit slowly and in visibly low resolution. z gas cd juarez Re-enter Xerox, now from a research lab on the West Coast. The company was now experimenting with lasers, not just to make copies, but create new documents from scratch, yet didn’t see the value in them. Apple laid claim to popularizing the laser printer. New dimensions and new horizons.

The latest frontier in printing doesn’t involve paper at all. It breaks the mold by literally breaking mold. 3D printing’s long gestation period dates back to 1983, with the printing of a small plastic cup formed entirely from digital data. electricity 4th grade powerpoint As the technology became more wildly available, the applications for 3D-printed objects has expanded and proliferated. Renderings and models, sure, but now bridges, replacement parts, and perhaps even biomaterials – human organs – using human cells, digital data and 3D printing technology.

Walter Isaacson: Chester Carlson is wandering through the stacks of the New York Public Library, stretching his legs and rubbing his tired wrists when an idea hits him. It’s the late 1930’s and the young inventor is working at the patent office by day and studying law at night. But since he’s too poor to afford textbooks, he spends his evenings at the library copying the textbooks by hand and right there, while holding an aching wrist with seemingly endless hours of copying ahead of him, Carlson conjures up the idea for a machine that will take him decades to perfect, but is eventually considered to be one of the most significant inventions of the century.

Walter Isaacson: From the moment that Johannes Gutenberg used movable type to produce a copy of the bible in the 1450’s, printing technology has radically altered the way we communicate. save electricity pictures Once an idea can be put down on paper and reproduced in mass quantities, it can spread at unprecedented speeds. Mass produced books and newspapers fundamentally changed the way information traveled, opening up the world in a way it had never been before.

But it wasn’t until the late 20th century that the printing revolution truly became available to almost anyone. With the advent of the home computer and the printer, now anyone could be a publisher. Half a century after the first affordable printer came on the market, there’s a new revolution in progress. 3D printing. Now anyone with an affordable 3D printer can produce real 3D objects and their sophistication is growing day by day and none of that would’ve been possible but for a penniless law student with a bold idea.

On October 22nd, 1938, in the back of a beauty shop in Astoria, Queens, years after is eureka moment in the library stacks, Chester Carlson was about to make history. With the help of a hired physicist, Carlson walked through the messy process he’d developed involving a light bulb, an electrically charged plate, and buckets of sulfur powder. When they were done, they removed the apparatus to reveal a sheet of paper with the words, “10-22-38 Astoria.” They had just made the world’s first photo copy.

David Owen: You have the idea that if you could cover a surface with a photoconductive material and then reflect the image of a document onto it so that the places where the ink was dark, where it would retain a charge, if you then placed an oppositely charged powder on that plate, it would stick where the type was and you would have an image of that document and if you could then transfer that powder to a piece of paper, you’d have a copy.

David Owen: With most inventions there is almost always multiple people working on it at the same time. If Gutenberg hadn’t invented movable type, somebody else would have right then. It was in the air, it was going to happen. But with xerography, that wasn’t the case and there are people, physicists and others who’ve worked with xerography who have said that if Carlson hadn’t come up with this, it’s entirely possible that nobody would have. electricity transmission vs distribution It was a non-intuitive process that as one scientist said, it involved joining together a bunch of unrelated ideas that were themselves obscure. A scientist who worked at Xerox for many years told me that the more he has learned about xerography, the more amazed he is that it works.

David Owen: They worked in just sort of remarkable circumstances. The group that was working on the toner worked in a little house in a not very nice neighborhood in Rochester and they had to, they adjusted their schedule because the woman who lived next door hung her laundry out on the clothesline one day a week, so they knew not to do their toner experiments on that day because they would ruin her laundry.

Walter Isaacson: In 1959, more than two decades after Carlson had made that first experimental photocopy in the beauty shop in Queens, the company shipped its first photocopier. It bore the name the company had adopted the year before as a sign of confidence in their xerography technology. No longer were they the Haloid Photography Company, they were now called Xerox.

Their breakthrough product, the Xerox 914 photocopier, was one of the most successful product introductions of the 20th century. The 914 became so popular that the very same model was produced for an amazing 17 years. In fact, the Xerox photocopier became so ubiquitous, it entered the vernacular as a verb and 80 years later, xerography is still alive and well.

David Owen: It’s never been superseded. electricity omd There is is no better way to make copies of existing documents on plain paper. The copier in your office right now is a xerographic copier. It’s the same technology that’s in laser printers, so your laser printer is really, it’s a xerox machine. It’s a xerographic printer. All these devices trace back to Carlson’s original idea, and nobody has come up with a better way to do the same thing.

Walter Isaacson: A serial inventor with an impressive track record, Howard had introduced rectangular TV tubes and cable television to the world in the 1950’s. By the mid 1960’s, he was working with casinos on a way to give their chips individually identifying signatures to prevent skimming and fraud. With his system, a needle could poke an ink ribbon as a chip passed before it, giving it a unique printed code. He soon, literally, connected the dots.

Walter Isaacson: But as anyone who has ever had to use a dot matrix printer knows, those machines were far from perfect. They were slow, they were noisy, and the print quality was decidedly low resolution. And although it would take decades to hit the home market, at around the same time Howard was developing his dot matrix printer the next stage in the home printing revolution was already underway and the path lead directly back to Chester Carlson.

Walter Isaacson: Gary Stockweather had been working on an early version of the fax machine when he had his breakthrough. What if he could use the principles of photoconductivity that Xerox had harnessed so profitably in the 914 to print documents to providing much higher resolution images at a fraction of the speed. gas under a dollar But facing resistance from unenthusiastic higher ups in Rochester, where he had been hiding the product literally under a black curtain to keep them from finding out about it, Stockweather heard about a new research facility Xerox was opening in Silicon Valley. It was across the country from the company’s headquarters, and far from its button-down corporate culture.

Gary S.: I went out and told the people in Palo Alto what I was working on. Well, they were thrilled because little to my knowledge, they had been working on a computer system that had a screen that was completely graphical, all bits on the screen just like we use today. They didn’t have any idea how they were going to print the stuff, so they looked at my printer, said, “Oh my gosh, we’ve got a marriage made in heaven here.”

Gary S.: I got a call from one of the professors at Stanford one day and says, “You got to believe, Steve Jobs is coming over with some new system. You got to come over and see it.” So I drove over there. That day he unveiled in for the group the Macintosh, he unveiled the laser printer, and then he had this wonderful graphic on the screen and printed it at full resolution on the laser printer and I said to myself, “It’s over. They’ve done it. gas stoichiometry worksheet answers They’ve put the system together.”

Walter Isaacson: Like Chester Carlson’s photocopier, the laser printers we use today are remarkably similar to Gary Stockweather’s original inventions. Both are innovations that have stood the test of time, still operating under the same basic principles. They’ve changed the last century of business and they aren’t going anywhere, but they do share one obvious limitation. They’re both only capable of creating two dimensional images, and those images are usually printed on paper.

Chuck Hull: The scenario was an engineer or designer designed the part, then the part had to be tooled, so since it was going to be injection molded, you had to have a cavity, the inverse of that part so the design then went to a designer who would design that tool then to a tool maker who would make the tool and then finally to a mold shop or a molder who would make a few of them, send them back to the designer, and that whole process was you know weeks and weeks, up to even a couple of months before a designer actually saw his first part, his first article.

Walter Isaacson: As an engineer, Hull had witnessed this problem many times firsthand and he knew there had to be a way to streamline the process. He devised a method that used an ultraviolet light to produce layer after super thin layer of a specialized plastic. Eventually enough of these layers stacked on top of each other would create a three dimensional object. What had taken months of waiting could now be done in a day.

Chuck Hull: There was a case where conjoined twins were separated with the aid of 3D printing models so that the surgical team could very carefully plan step-by-step how they were going to approach the surgery. The models were, of course of the conjoined twins, they were joined at the head, but also various details of how to proceed with the surgery so this was a well publicized case, then it brought to bear how useful 3D printing could be. electricity invented what year Today, that’s fairly common. Almost all conjoined twin surgeries are planned using 3D printing, plus lots of other surgeries.

Gijs van der V.: What we’re looking for is designs that add just a little bit more intelligence or functionality in a way that you would never be able to do when you would produce these items with classic methods. For example, we can make hollow spaces giving them an internal structure and because of that, you have a much more light weight end product which can be very handy if you go to space or if you want to make your car lighter or a bridge.

Mark F.: It was crude, but right away I started seeing that this thing was going to become a pretty important part of my life and my family’s life. One of the first things I started doing was actually printing parts of things around the house that had broken and that turned out to be like a great thing for fixing stuff like parts in a dishwasher, parts of patio furniture, parts of roll-up blinds in the house, parts for the freezer mechanism in our refrigerator. This thing was coming in really handy and I thought, “We are going to see 3D printing technology expand into homes as people find this thing more and more useful.”

Walter Isaacson: When Star Trek: The Next Generation introduced The Replicator so that Captain Picard could have a hot cup of Earl Gray tea whenever he wanted one, it felt like the science fiction concept of a device that could create any object on demand was hundreds of years ahead of its time. But with the rise of 3D printing, that far-flown 24th century future now seems a lot closer. Like the Gutenberg press revolutionized the spread of ideas, new innovations in printing technology have the potential to make the manufacturing process available to nearly anyone.

I’m Walter Isaacson and you’ve been listening to Trailblazers, an original podcast from Dell Technologies. If you want to find out more information about any of the guests on today’s show, you can visit our website at delltechnologies.com/trailblazers. On the next episode, we’re taking a look at the world of forensics and the disruption that TV shows like CSI have had on real world crime solving. Thanks for listening.