3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate – wikipedia 4 gas laws


BZ is odorless. It is stable in most solvents, with a half-life of three to four weeks in moist air; even heat-producing munitions can disperse it. It is extremely persistent in soil and water and on most surfaces. It is slightly soluble in water, soluble in dilute acids gas zone pricing, trichloroethylene, dimethylformamide, and most organic solvents, and insoluble with aqueous alkali. [3] Effects [ edit ]

BZ affects both the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and CNS. BZ inhibits glandular secretions, leading to a dry gas laws worksheet mouth and foul breath. Cutaneous vasodilation and skin flushing may be noted due to decreased capillary tone. Hyperthermia is due to elevated body temperature secondary to inhibition of sweating and inability to dissipate heat. Vision loss is from a loss of accommodation reflexes and decreased depth of field secondary to ciliary muscle paralysis and mydriasis. Paralytic ileus is commonly seen as a result of anticholinergic toxicity. This can lead to fatal colic in equids. Urinary retention is also a common anticholinergic effect following electricity trading hedge funds exposure to BZ.

CNS signs of disorientation, agitation, tremor, ataxia , stupor, coma, and seizures may occur from inhibition of central muscarinic receptors. It is unknown if animals hallucinate like people, but they gas explosion in texas do appear distressed. Rhabdomyolysis can be seen secondary to seizures and agitation. If severe, myoglobinuric renal failure could develop.

BZ is an antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. The characteristic that makes BZ an incapacitating rather than a toxic chemical warfare agent is its high safety margin ( IC 50/ LD 50) of around 40-fold (range 32 to 384 fold). It has an ID 50 of 0.00616 mg per person (i.v.) with a probit slope of 9.2. The respiratory IC 50 (median incapacitating dosage) for BZ is 110 mg·min/m³ (mild electricity facts activity—15 l/min rate of breathing), whereas the LD 50 is often estimated to be around 3,800–41,300 mg·min/m³. [4] History [ edit ] Invention 9gag instagram logo and research [ edit ]

BZ was invented by the Swiss pharmaceutical company Hoffman-LaRoche in 1951. [5] The company was investigating anti-spasmodic agents, similar to tropine, for treating gastrointestinal ailments when the chemical was discovered. [5] It was then investigated for possible use in ulcer treatment, but was found unsuitable. At this time the United States military investigated it along with a wide range of possible nonlethal, psychoactive incapacitating agents including psychedelic drugs such as LSD and THC, dissociative drugs such as ketamine and phencyclidine, potent electricity bill opioids such as fentanyl, as well as several glycolate anticholinergics. [6] [7] By 1959, the United States Army showed significant interest in deploying it as a chemical warfare agent. [5] It was originally designated TK, but when it was standardized by the Army in 1961, it received the NATO code name BZ. [5] The agent commonly became known as Buzz electricity projects ks2 because of this abbreviation and the effects it had on the mental state of the human volunteers intoxicated with it in research studies at Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland. [5] As described in retired Army psychiatrist James Ketchum’s autobiographical book Chemical on q gas station okc Warfare: Secrets Almost Forgotten (2006), work proceeded in 1964 when a general envisioned a scheme to incapacitate an entire trawler with aerosolized BZ; this effort was dubbed Project DORK gas laws worksheet answers and work. [8] BZ was ultimately weaponized for delivery in the M44 generator cluster and the M43 cluster bomb, until all such stocks were destroyed in 1989 as part of a general downsizing of the US chemical warfare program.

In February 1998, the British Ministry of Defence accused Iraq of having stockpiled large amounts of a glycolate anticholinergic gas efficient suv 2013 incapacitating agent known as Agent 15. [11] Agent 15 is an alleged Iraqi incapacitating agent that is likely to be chemically either identical to BZ or closely related to it. Agent 15 was reportedly stockpiled in large quantities prior to and during the Persian Gulf War. However, after the war the CIA concluded that gas lighting Iraq had not stockpiled or weaponised Agent 15. [12] [13]

In January 2013, an unidentified U.S. administration official, referring to an undisclosed U.S. State Department cable, claimed that Syrian contacts made a compelling case that Agent 15, a hallucinogenic chemical similar to BZ, [15] was used in Homs. [16] However, in response to these reports a U.S. National Security Council spokesman stated The reporting we have seen from media sources regarding alleged chemical weapons incidents in Syria has not been consistent with what we believe to be true about the Syrian chemical weapons program. [13] [17] The chemical was also allegedly astrid y gaston lima menu english used in the August 2013 Ghouta attacks. [18] Detection and protection [ edit ]