7 Ways cannabis can protect the brain health digest gas laws definition chemistry

#########

And yet, even though the US government officially denies any such therapeutic use of cannabis, it has taken out a patent on cannabinoids saying they ‘are found to have particular application as neuroprotectants, for example in limiting neurological damage following ischemic insults, such as stroke and trauma, or in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and HIV dementia’.

Scientists have known for some time that the body’s Endocannabinoid System – the complex network of chemical compounds and receptors found throughout the central nervous (CB1) and the immune system (CB2) – is directly involved in the mechanisms of diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. An increased CB2 expression (1) found in post-mortem brains Alzheimer’s patients has been thought to be the ECS’s attempt to counteract the chronic inflammation found in the disease, while in another study (2) on Alzheimer’s patients, reduced levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide were found, although conversely were elevated in Parkinson’s disease (3).

Researchers believe then that by targeting the Endocannabinoid system, therapeutic answers can be found for many of the neurodegenerative diseases affecting people in the 21st century. electricity 4th grade worksheet And much research is being carried out into how phytocannabinoids like THC and CBD can not only treat disease progression, but also even prevent certain neurodegenerative disorders from happening.

Gary Wenk, PhD, professor of neuroscience, immunology and medical genetics at Ohio State University, has studied how to combat brain inflammation for over 25 years. He says, ‘PET imaging studies of humans have shown that after age thirty the brain gradually displays increasing evidence of inflammation. With advancing age, brain inflammation continues to worsen leading to a decline in the production of new neurons, called neurogenesis, that are important for making new memories’.

He coined the phrase ‘one puff is enough’ after suggesting that ingesting small amounts of cannabis over years can be enough to protect the brain against inflammation, saying ‘the evidence available from studies of humans and animal models of Alzheimer’s disease do indicate that long-term, low-dose daily exposure, during mid-life, to the complex blend of compounds found in the marijuana plant can effectively slow the brain processes underlying Alzheimer’s disease’. 2. electricity lesson plans year 6 Cannabis is a powerful antioxidant protecting against toxic build up in the brain

An ageing brain has a tendency to accumulate excessive levels of glutamate, a neurotransmitter that is involved with nerve cell signalling. This can lead to glutamate toxicity, an overstimulation of the cell and ultimately cell death. When glutamate causes cellular damage, it becomes an excitotoxin. gas prices going up in michigan Excitotoxicity is viewed as a potential cause of many neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system, as well as strokes and hearing loss.

In one study (4) carried out on rats, the cannabinoid Cannabidiol was ‘was demonstrated to reduce hydroperoxide toxicity in neurons. In a head to head trial of the abilities of various antioxidants to prevent glutamate toxicity, cannabidiol was superior to both alpha-tocopherol and ascorbate in protective capacity.’ And in another, (5) THC was shown to reduce the levels of glutamate in the brain following a traumatic brain injury.

In a follow on study (8) by the University of Saskatchewan, researchers sought to find out whether this hippocampal neurogenesis could explain the apparent anti anxiety and antidepressant effects of cannabinoids. Using a synthetic cannabinoid called HU-210 on rats, they found it gave rise to both the growth of ‘newborn neurons’ in the hippocampal area but also reduced anxiety and depression like behaviour in the animal subjects.

Research (10) carried out in 2014 at the University of South Florida showed that extremely low doses of THC actually reduces amyloid-beta production. “THC is known to be a potent antioxidant with neuroprotective properties, but this is the first report that the compound directly affects Alzheimer’s pathology by decreasing amyloid beta levels, inhibiting its aggregation, and enhancing mitochondrial function,” said study lead author Chuanhai Cao, PhD of the study.

A recent study (12) carried out on 11 patients in Israel found that out of the 10 patients that completed the trial ingesting medical cannabis oil, researchers recorded “significant reduction” in behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Researchers concluded that ‘adding medical cannabis oil to Alzheimer’s patients’ pharmacotherapy is safe and a promising treatment option’. 6. electricity and magnetism worksheets Cannabis may protect the brain against serious brain trauma

TBI is also proving an exciting area of research for the potential therapeutic use of cannabinoids. THC in particular has been shown to protect the brain from long term damage following a traumatic injury. In a study (13) carried out on mice by Professor Yosef Sarne of Tel Aviv University, very low doses of THC administered over a long period of time were found to ‘protect the brain from long-term cognitive damage in the wake of injury from hypoxia (lack of oxygen), seizures, or toxic drugs’.

Not only did they find that THC minimised the damage to the brain following an injury, but if administered before the incident it could prevent brain injury from occurring in the first place. It seems strange to suggest taking THC just in case a brain trauma might occur, but in instances such as major surgery when blood supply to the brain is interrupted, THC’s neuroprotection could be of benefit.

Scientists are slowly beginning to realise how the endocannabinoid system is activated during a stroke (15) whereby ‘activation of the CB receptors leads to cellular changes that are extremely relevant to ischemic injury (stroke damage): they regulate glutamate release, nitric oxide synthesis, growth factor expression, cellular antioxidant activity, the release of inflammatory cytokines, and leukocyte adhesion to cerebral vessels.’

Both CBD and THC’s ability to block the neurotransmitter glutamate, produced when the brain is deprived of oxygen, once again come to the fore as a way to limit cell death following a stroke. gas bloating pain In a study (16) published in 2010 scientists concluded that ‘CBD had a potent and long-lasting neuroprotective effect and prevented progressive post-ischemic injury’ and ‘that repeated treatment with CBD from 1 day or 3 days after cerebral ischemia improved the functional deficits, such as neurological score and motor coordination, and survival rates’.

• Vanessa Kappel da Silva, Betânia Souza de Freitas, Arethuza da Silva Dornelles,Laura Roesler Nery, Lucio Falavigna,Rafael Dal Ponte Ferreira, Maurício Reis Bogo, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio Hallak, Antônio Waldo Zuardi, José Alexandre S. Crippa, Nadja Schröder (2014) Cannabidiol Normalizes Caspase 3, Synaptophysin, and Mitochondrial Fission Protein DNM1L Expression Levels in Rats with Brain Iron Overload: Implications for Neuroprotection. electricity symbols and units Molecular Neurobiology. Volume 49, Issue 1, pp 222–233