Accelerating access to sustainable electricity in sub-saharan africa – microgrid knowledge

Claire Henly and Kelly Carlin describe how the Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) is creating access to sustainable electricity in Sub-Saharan Africa — and challenges that stand in the way.A team from Rocky Mountain Institute is working in sub-Saharan Africa to address barriers to sustainable electricity access. Year 6 electricity worksheets Since September of last year, we have been working with an African government to find ways to achieve ambitious electricity access targets using a combination of on- and off-grid resources. Gas up yr hearse Although providing sustainable, affordable electricity access in the developing world is fraught with challenges, many of the lessons we’ve learned are cause for optimism and are applicable to other developing countries. Gas monkey monster truck THE RURAL ELECTRIFICATION OPPORTUNITY

The rewards for both human and economic development are enormous, and easy to see. Gas mileage comparison Standing on a narrow, red-dirt path, we’re surrounded by small subsistence farms of banana trees and short, pale green bushes of coffee. Gas definition wikipedia Two small shops in this farming town are doing a bustling business—a rustic bar is serving banana beer to farmers coming in from a day of work and a small general store on the opposite side of the building is selling soaps, spices, light bulbs, and fertilizer to local women—many with babies wrapped against their backs with colorful cloth.

What’s remarkable about this scene is that here, in one of the poorest places in the world, where there is no electricity grid, a small energy-efficient television is playing in the bar and a small but powerful LED bulb lights the room. Done with electricity tattoo book The general store now offers a mobile-phone charging service to people who don’t have electricity at home, and it will stay open after sunset, with its own pair of LED bulbs lighting the counter. 1 unit electricity price india A 100-watt solar panel is perched on the corrugated aluminum roof of the building, while inside, between the two businesses, a lithium-ion battery, charged from a typical day of sunshine, will provide power into the night. Electricity distribution map In the modest homes of farmers in the village nearby, a few families have similar, smaller solar-battery units providing cell phone charging and light by which they prepare food, work into the evening, and allow their children to study. Gaston yla agrupacion santa fe 2016 In many parts of sub-Saharan Africa this level of service is comparable to—and complementary to—grid service, in that most grid-connected homes and business use electricity in a similar way.

But even at this modest scale, 68 percent of households in sub-Saharan Africa—or more than 600 million people—did not have access to electricity in 2013. E electricity bill In Asia, there are an additional 530 million people without access to electricity. Electricity worksheets grade 9 Globally, there are 1.2 billion people without the power to light a bulb over a kitchen table, run a small grain mill, refrigerate food, or run a business after dark. Electricity physics pdf That’s over 1 billion people who lack an essential ingredient for economic growth and social welfare improvement. Electricity and magnetism study guide 5th grade A CHANCE TO MITIGATE FUTURE CARBON EMISSIONS

Providing people with affordable, clean power is both a tremendous economic opportunity and a substantial opportunity to mitigate future carbon emissions. Gas line jobs in wv By 2040, sub-Saharan Africa is projected to consume 1,600 tWh of electricity, the equivalent of the combined 2013 consumption of Latin America and the Caribbean, or the equivalent of the power produced by more than 600 large (500 MW) coal power plants. Electricity worksheets How quickly and cleanly sub-Saharan Africa reaches this level of electricity consumption depends on thoughtful on- and off-grid electricity planning.

Rapidly increasing access to electricity faces three challenges: developing country electricity systems are often plagued by high costs, off-grid market growth is progressing slowly, and there is a lack of complete and coordinated electricity planning across the public sector, the private sector, and the development partner community.

Grid electricity can be costly—In countries with few domestic natural-gas or coal resources, traditional electricity generation can be an expensive proposition. A gas has no volume Without simple, cheap generation solutions, utilities often rely on expensive but dependable diesel generation. Electricity off peak hours Even so, electricity blackouts can occur throughout the year, particularly during dry seasons when hydropower is less available.

Off-grid market growth is slow—A nascent off-grid electricity market is beginning to provide some people and businesses with reliable solar-plus-battery, solar-plus-diesel, and micro-hydro electricity, but the rate of uptake does not yet reflect the magnitude of the need.

Energy planning is incomplete and uncoordinated—There are some significant but resolvable problems with the business-as-usual approach to electricity planning in sub-Saharan Africa. Gas variables pogil extension questions First, few parties take a holistic view of the power sector when developing their approach to electricity development. R gas constant chemistry Such a view of the power sector would consider all off-grid, centralized-generation and grid-extension, and demand-side resources in order to create an integrated electricity-access strategy. Gas in babies treatment Second, there are multiple stakeholders with competing approaches, agendas, and interests who do not rally around a common strategy. Electricity 101 powerpoint This leads to confusion, limited effectiveness, poor deployment of investment and development dollars, and slowed impact. Electricity cost las vegas Finally, there may not be enough capacity in developing countries to evaluate, operate, and maintain the multitude of emerging energy resources, including off-grid resources. Gas zauberberg EMERGING RECOMMENDATIONS

There are several concrete ways developing countries can address the three challenges of costly grid electricity, slow off-grid market growth, and a lack of coordination between on- and off-grid planning.

Costly grid electricity: While recommendations will be different for different countries, our experience thus far shows that even this small country can avoid many tens of millions of dollars per year in grid operation costs by doing three things:

Slow off-grid market growth: Governments can speed the growth of the off-grid market by launching a government supported, private sector-driven, off-grid electrification program that:

• Increases awareness of off-grid products and their use in areas of the country that will not be connected to the grid in the next five years by establishing a clear off-grid plan for the country and a national off-grid awareness campaign to educate consumers

• Supports scaling enablers, such as capital deployment and workforce training, by setting up effective debt facilities and education programs

Planning is incomplete and uncoordinated: On- and off-grid development should be considered together. Electricity in water pipes Off-grid technologies and businesses are racing into emerging markets as the costs of solar and batteries drop. Electricity distribution network While many governments are eager to take advantage of the technology, few governments have national energy plans that take into account the value and costs of stand-alone solar home systems or minigrids. On q gas station okc It is crucial that each government develop a complete plan that coordinates efforts and capacity across on- and off-grid electrification by:

• Developing an on-grid integrated resource plan to harness new, lower-risk, and lower-cost technologies that also considers off-grid opportunities

• Driving a coordinated off-grid program with clear roles and responsibilities for all players, including substantial and continuous involvement of the private sector

This spring, our work in our first sub-Saharan Africa country shifted from strategic planning to handing off implementation to partners on the ground. Electricity units to kwh Along with ensuring a successful start to implementation there, we are looking to apply our approach in additional countries.

With any luck, the subtle changes visible in that rural village—light bulbs keeping general stores open later, televisions in bars, and families with a light to turn on in the evening—may soon not be so subtle. Gas knife lamb RMI will be there to help drive this change.