Across britain, silent relics of the cold war – the new york times

Because of its proximity to Eastern Europe — a Soviet missile would have taken only four minutes from detection to reaching its target — many in Britain felt the Cold War nuclear threat with a visceral immediacy. Gsa 2016 calendar The result is the extensive network of bunkers planted by the government during the Cold War, from the 1,500-plus small radiation monitoring posts all over Britain, generally in rural and remote areas, to the more than a dozen enormous underground bunker complexes from which the country could have been governed if the capital was annihilated. Gas and supply The bunkers, many of which are now open to the public, were part of a vast plan that struck me on a recent visit as impressive but practically futile; more a balm against atomic fear than a viable survival plan.

During the Cold War, Britain became known as America’s “unsinkable aircraft carrier” for hosting its ally’s atomic bombers, long-range communications systems, intelligence infrastructure and missiles, making the threat of a nuclear strike palpable, wrote Nick Catford in “Cold War Bunkers,” an engrossing book of photographs published in 2010. Gas x strips review Mr. Gastritis Catford is a member of Subterranea Britannica, an English club dedicated to the study of all manner of underground sites. Electricity and circuits class 6 To counter this threat, the author wrote, “Britain became the most densely enbunkered nation in the world.”

I was born in 1974 and have always been interested in the Cold War imagery that dominated the political and popular culture of my formative years, from the “Star Wars” Strategic Defense Initiative to movies like “WarGames” and “Red Dawn,” and the scary, anti-proliferation songs of Ozzy Osbourne such as “Killer of Giants” and the MTV staple “Crazy Train.”

Visitors to the museum are greeted by a dated, grainy video of Mike Parrish, the bunker’s owner. Gas pains 6 weeks pregnant Mr. Electricity kwh to unit converter Parrish appears on the television screen as a man in late middle age with a tidy gray beard and a maroon V-neck sweater emblazoned with a trefoil — the international symbol of radiation. Gas and bloating after every meal His sober, businesslike instructions for how to proceed unaccompanied through the complex have the air of a recording intended to be played in the event of his untimely death.

The bunker was built by the Royal Air Force in 1952 after the land under which it sits was bought compulsorily from the Parrish family. Gas and bloating Initially intended as a radar installation, the bunker evolved into what Mr. Electricity definition chemistry Parrish describes in the video as “the would-be home of regional government in the event of nuclear attack.” In the early ’90s the bunker was sold back to the family, who now runs it as a distinctly improvised tourist attraction. Gas city indiana I was instructed to follow white arrows shaped like guided bombs and to drop £7 in an honesty box at the end of the tour, while signs advising customers that they are being watched on closed circuit TV amplify a general air of menace.

The Kelvedon Hatch facility is one of more than a dozen underground government headquarters in Britain and is both gloriously bizarre and genuinely fascinating, with the owners’ morbid sense of humor making itself evident in the exhibits and, especially, on the deadpan audio guide. Hair electricity dance moms It stands in stark contrast to the Churchill War Rooms in central London, one of the slickest and well-attended tourist attractions in England. J gastroenterol hepatol impact factor Though used only during World War II, Churchill’s tidy war rooms, with their lifelike wax figures and careful attention to historical detail, provide an excellent antecedent for the bunker fever that would sweep England, which was very much informed by the German bombing raids during the war.

The bunker at Kelvedon Hatch is entered though an unassuming farm cottage, which is really just a steel and concrete-reinforced shell of a house. Gas dryer vs electric dryer singapore As I descended a 120-yard-long tunnel and held a clunky red audio-tour handset to my ear, the laconic voice of Mr. Electricity of the heart Parrish inquired, “I don’t suppose you’ve given the next war very much thought?” He went on to describe how the soil above would produce no viable harvest for three years after a nuclear attack, during which time one would contend for food with “marauding gangs” of radiation-sickened survivors in an environment resembling that of medieval times.

The prevailing wisdom held that a nuclear war would follow a few weeks of escalating tension — much as there was during the Cuban Missile Crisis — then a short conventional war followed by all-out nuclear war, which Mr. Gas zombies Parrish described on the audio tour as “the big bang.” Apart from being guarded full time by a handful of soldiers and during routine equipment checks, the bunker wasn’t regularly manned during much of its Cold War life, but would have been staffed and stocked with food and water if war was thought imminent.

The damp, musty entrance tunnel deposits visitors approximately 100 feet underground at the bunker’s deepest level, which was thought to be the safest. Electricity examples It was there that the three-story bunker’s most critical operations were housed, including the enormous air filtration and cooling systems crucial to running the bunker and the map-laden “plotting rooms” where military and civilian staff would have tried to determine the size and nature of the attack and severity of the fallout.

Packed and piled into every free space were unlabeled and random-seeming pieces of communications equipment, instruments, protective clothing, maps and paperwork. Electricity experiments On one desk was a copy of a commercial telephone book left open to the pages listing funeral directors. Gas in oil On another sat old editions of The Daily Mail, including one chronicling the Queen’s coronation, bearing the headline, “Let Us Cherish Our Own Way of Life.”

Nearby I peered into the still-intact BBC broadcasting studio from which the prime minister, should he or she have been spirited to the bunker, could have spoken to the nation. Electricity lessons for 5th grade At the microphone sits a smiling mannequin dressed in a fuchsia dress that bore a strong resemblance to Margaret Thatcher. Mp electricity bill pay indore A soundtrack of sirens, bleeps, alerts and emergency announcements is all that broke the eerie silence.

The bunker, said the voice of Mr. M gastrocnemius Parrish, was about protecting the people who “will pop up at the appropriate time and bring to you and me, the survivors, hope, help, succor and maybe a little bit of food.” Those people — civil servants, scientists, military personnel and government officials — would have worked from the bunker’s middle floor, which still contains work stations with yellowing desktop computers and analog rotary telephones. Gas block dimple jig I laughed out loud when I peered into a cell labeled “prime minister” and saw a grinning mannequin with silver, side-parted hair — presumably John Major — lying on a cot, tucked to his chin under a gray blanket.

The bunker’s top floor, closest to the surface, has rows of bunk beds and a sick bay, where mannequins in surgical scrubs preside over bandaged mannequin patients.

On my way out I dropped £2 in the honesty box at a photo station and prepared to have my portrait taken in a gas mask, before realizing that there was nobody around to operate the Polaroid camera. Electricity in costa rica I recalled Mr. Gasco abu dhabi contact Parrish’s chilling words on the audio guide when he said if the cottage above took a direct hit, “then this is where you’d have spent the rest of your life.”

A more genial mood prevailed the following day, when I met two Subterranea Britannica members, Ed Combes and Mark Russell, on the outskirts of the West Sussex village of Cuckfield, at the Royal Observer Corps monitoring post they have restored. Inert gas definition chemistry The post is no more than a tiny room buried 15 feet underground, from which a team of civilian volunteers would have analyzed the fallout from a nuclear attack and sent the data they collected back to a plotting room, like the one I saw at Kelvedon Hatch.

Above ground, the post is unassuming. Gas in babies home remedies A small, green-painted concrete cube topped with a hatch pokes out of the ground amid a three-acre, fenced-in parcel of land that also contained a beekeeper’s hives and four grazing sheep. Electricity magnetism A cylindrical probe — the radiation detector — protrudes from the grass a few yards away from the hatch near the post’s air vent, which sprouts below a mast flying the light blue flag of the Royal Observer Corps, the volunteer force that would, theoretically, warn the populace of an imminent nuclear strike and measure its fallout. Gas bijoux discount code Photo

Mr. Electricity production by state Combes, 35, and Mr. Electricity distribution companies Russell, 37, both had collections of artifacts from observer corps posts when they began restoring the one in Cuckfield, chosen because it was in relatively good shape. Gas quality comparison “Some of them were flooded or had dead animals in them, or kids had been inside and set fire to them,” said Mr. La gasolina lyrics translation Russell. 9gag instagram videos With permission from the local council, they cleaned it up and stocked it with Cold War-era supplies, hardware and provisions, which were either donated by former observers, traded for with other collectors or bought on eBay, Mr. Gastric sleeve scars Combes said. Electricity research centre In 2010 they began opening it for free public tours several weekends a year.

The post at Cuckfield is one of a handful the public can visit, but Subterranea Britannica (“Sub Brit,” to those in the know) organizes access for its more than 1,100 dues-paying members to various other underground and secret Cold War sites that are not generally accessible. Gas oil ratio formula Mr. Gas station car wash Dixon, the club’s chairman, told me he enjoys underground sites from coal mines to transportation tunnels to military installations because, whatever their age, they are a good prism through which to study history. Basic electricity quizlet “Nothing is more exciting than going into a place that few others have seen or seeing something that’s been hidden for hundreds of years,” he said, adding, “and you’re never too far from the pub.”

One by one we descended the ladder to the cramped shaft leading to the post, taking care not to slip on the slick metal rungs. Arkansas gas association At about 100 square feet, the post made me feel as if I were in a rabbit hutch, albeit a large one. Electricity notes for class 10 It had polystyrene panels covered in flame-retardant white paint on the walls and ceiling and was just big enough to hold the monitoring and communications equipment, including a giant gauge that measured radiation in kilopascals and a two-way land line “teletalk” system, which works sort of like an old-fashioned speakerphone. Gas x side effects Mr. Electricity out in one room Combes and Mr. Electricity word search answer key Russell sometimes fire it up to communicate with other restored posts. M power electricity After a few minutes my feet became chilled by the cold, damp air that radiated from the concrete floor, over which scraps of carpet had been laid in a futile attempt to help insulate it.

After a nuclear blast, one of the three volunteer “observers” manning the post was to scamper out of the bunker into a likely radiation-contaminated environment, and remove the negatives from a pinhole camera adjacent to the hatch, from which they would be able to help determine the location and type of blast.

If a strike was imminent, Mr. Electricity formulas physics Combes said, the observers would sound a hand-operated siren and fire small, flarelike rockets, indicating that people should “get underground or in your basement and stay there until these guys with their measuring equipment detected that the levels of fallout radiation had fallen enough that it was safe to come back above ground and carry on,” he said, making air quotes with his fingers around the word “safe.” Mr. Electricity experiments elementary school Combes said he’s spoken with dozens of ex-observers, and while they are all proud of their service, some admit the system might have been ineffectual.

In addition to hardware, Mr. Electricity journal Combes and Mr. Gas symptoms Russell have also provided ephemera like a copy of the Observer’s Handbook and the Official Secrets Acts, as well as decades-old cans of rations labeled “Curried Chicken,” “Steak and Kidney Pudding” and “Oatmeal Blocks” that reminded me of the bad-old days of uninspired British cuisine. Gas news of manipur Near the ladder, a small closet contains a chemical toilet and is stocked with vintage toilet paper, each sheet stamped “Government Property.” Photo

If you’re interested in visiting underground Cold War sites, such as the Royal Observer Corps monitoring post in Cuckfield, the best place to start is Subterranea Britannica. Gas upper back pain Its website is comprehensive, and members are often allowed access to sites not open to the public. Gas chamber jokes Membership starts at £21 per year (about $30);

The Kelvedon Hatch Secret Nuclear Bunker is about an hour northeast of London. Gas oil ratio calculator (Kelvedon Hall Lane, Kelvedon Hatch; 44-1277-364883;

Hack Green Secret Nuclear Bunker near Stoke-on-Trent is also open to the public and hosts Cold War re-enactments and “ghost hunts” and can be hired for birthday parties and wedding receptions. Gas near me cheap (French Lane, Nantwich, Cheshire; 44-1270-629219;

Near St. Gas x while pregnant Andrews, Scotland’s Secret Bunker was hidden under an “innocent Scottish farmhouse.” (Crown Buildings, Troywood, Fife; 44-1333-310301;

There was an active Cold War bunker under Dover Castle, whose history dates back to medieval times, that is open to visitors a few weekends per year. 5 gas laws (Castle Hill, Dover, Kent, 44-1304-211067;

The Churchill War Rooms were not used during the Cold War, but shouldn’t be missed by anyone interested in British bunkers. Electricity 101 youtube (Clive Steps, King Charles Street, London; 44-207-9306961;