Admixture analyses – isogg wiki gas yourself

Admixture calculations provide genetic ancestry analysis to individuals tested for high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. The different SNP extraction methods (mostly SNP-chips) need substantial overlap of extracted SNPs to allow meaningful comparisons. Admixture analysis usually builds ancestral components also called clusters by comparing a dataset of samples. Both the used datasets (regional, continental, worldwide) and the ancestral components (number, age) are very diverse depending on the used setup and analysis method. A new sample (not used in the dataset) is normally compared to the ancestral components by the calculation of the percentages. Additional tools allow also the prediction of ancestral populations. The analysis is strongly limited by the diversity and accuracy of the dataset, for example calculating an Asian individual with an Admixture tool based on an European dataset will not give meaningful results.

Most calculators use a shared subset of the up to 0.7 million SNPs provided by Family Finder, AncestryDNA, 23andMe, etc. These are compared with publicly available datasets and the companies’ own proprietary datasets. As can be seen from the Autosomal DNA testing comparison chart the accuracy and sophistication vary greatly and have not yet reached the quality desired for accurate genetic genealogy research. The public dbSNP (Build 137) database contains ca. 45 million human SNPs, and comprehensive whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of all human populations could substantially increase that number and allow much better calculators. [1] DTC providers admixture analysis

The Ancestry Composition feature offers a map view which displays one’s ancestral components from various regions of the world as of 500 years ago, a split view for those who also have one or both parents who have been tested by 23andMe, and a breakdown by chromosome. Three settings are available: conservative, standard, and speculative. Overall accuracy is reasonably good, but predictions in Europe are still not optimal, particularly in the speculative mode. Ancestry Finder provides a breakdown of one’s ancestry by country.

Population Finder was the first incarnation of the admixture analysis provided with Family Tree DNA’s " Family Finder" test. It was replaced by a new feature known as MyOrigins in May 2014. Population Finder used principal component analysis (PCA) to estimate biogeographical percentages of autosomal DNA. The population samples used in the analysis were continental groups (Africa, America, East Asia, Europe, Middle Eastern, Oceania, and South Asia). The analysis did not include the X-chromosome. For historical details of the test see Understanding results: Population Finder in the Internet Archive. The Population Finder analysis was relatively non-specific, particularly for people with European Ancestry.

Since a relatively limited number of autosomal SNPs are available in the Geno 2.0 data for analysis, the biogeographical ancestry analysis is somewhat limited relative to other similar tools, particularly relative to Ancestry Composition. The two closest reference populations are given for each person who is tested. However, these predictions, particularly the second closest reference population, are frequently inaccurate.

This test provides a biogeograpical analysis, chromosome painting, and principal components analysis. A somewhat limited number of autosomal SNPs are included in the All My Ancestry dataset which limits the specificity of the biogeographical ancestry analysis relative to 23andMe’s Ancestry Composition. However, this is the only company doing autosomal DNA testing that offers chromosome painting and principal components analysis other than 23andMe.

Doug McDonald does two types of free tests. One is like 23andme’s "Advanced Global Similarity", except that he does more "dimensions". For people with ancestry outside Europe four of these are shown. For pure Europeans his world graph is essentially identical to 23andMe’s so instead he shows a European graph, which includes (at lower right) the Adygei, a tribe living on the eastern shores of the Black Sea. The higher dimensions do not give additional information for pure Europeans so they are not shown. The results are sent to participants on graphs as .png files. Doug also does quantitative tests. These come in three flavors, first without South Asia (represented by Pakistan) and the Middle East, second with South Asia, and finally with all three, as comparison panels. See the ISOGG Wiki page on McDonald’s BGA project for the qualifying criteria.

See for details. Also see the summary written on November 7, 2010 on his anthropology blog. This analysis is currently closed to participants, but Dienekes says that he "may or may not process data from relatives, or non-target groups that was already sent to me and that was not assigned a DOD number." Contact him directly at to see if he might be willing to accept your data at some future point in time.

David does free analysis of raw data files from both 23andMe and FTDNA’s Family Finder using the programs ADMIXTURE, BEAGLE, PLINK and ADMIXMAP. Results are distributed as Excel spreadsheets and as .png files. See and for background. Also see

Anders does a free analysis of admixture for people of Scandinavian ancestry who have been tested by 23andMe. Participants must have their primary ancestry from Norway, Sweden or Finland. The raw 23andMe data files are analyzed using the program ADMIXTURE and the ancestry is presented in a STRUCTURE like graph. For additional background see

This free onine service was created by John Olson and Curtis Rogers under The big data sizes to transfer and heavy usage sometimes leads to server problems; donations are welcome to help funding the service. Various admixture (ethnicity or deep ancestry) tools are included:

Dienekes Pontikus published the Do-It-Yourself Dodecad tool free of charge for non-commercial use. DIYDodecad can do admixture analysis on Windows or Linux 32bit/64bit machines. The analysis is carried out based on calculator files and appropriately standardized autosomal SNP raw data. There is an interesting admixture calculator which gives percentages for the different population clusters.

This test compares your 23andMe or deCODEme data with that of over 1600 people from all over the world. The test provides a detailed analysis of which populations and individuals a person is genetically related to. The cost is $99 per analysis. See archive of for details. For a list of the reference populations see