Adolescent development medlineplus medical encyclopedia electricity and circuits class 6 cbse

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• Menarche (the beginning of menstrual periods) typically occurs about 2 years after early breast and pubic hair appear. It may occur as early as age 9, or as late as age 16. The average age of menstruation in the United States is about 12 years.

• Boys do not start puberty with a sudden incident, like the beginning of menstrual periods in girls. Having regular nocturnal emissions (wet dreams) marks the beginning of puberty in boys. Wet dreams typically start between ages 13 and 17. The average age is about 14 and a half years.

Physical changes may not occur in a smooth, regular schedule. Therefore, adolescents may go through awkward stages, both in their appearance and physical coordination. Girls may be anxious if they are not ready for the beginning of their menstrual periods. Boys may worry if they do not know about nocturnal emissions.

During adolescence, it is normal for young people to begin to separate from their parents and make their own identity. In some cases, this may occur without a problem from their parents and other family members. However, this may lead to conflict in some families as the parents try to keep control.

• In early adolescence, the peer group most often consists of non-romantic friendships. These often include "cliques," gangs, or clubs. Members of the peer group often try to act alike, dress alike, have secret codes or rituals, and participate in the same activities.

In mid- to late adolescence, young people often feel the need to establish their sexual identity. They need to become comfortable with their body and sexual feelings. Adolescents learn to express and receive intimate or sexual advances. Young people who do not have the chance for such experiences may have a harder time with intimate relationships when they are adults.

• The first myth is that they are "on stage" and other people’s attention is constantly centered on their appearance or actions. This is normal self-centeredness. However, it may appear (especially to adults) to border on paranoia, self-love (narcissism), or even hysteria.

• Another myth of adolescence is the idea that "it will never happen to me, only the other person." "It" may represent becoming pregnant or catching a sexually-transmitted disease after having unprotected sex, causing a car crash while driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, or any of the many other negative effects of risk-taking behaviors.

Motor vehicle safety should be stressed. It should focus on the role of the driver/passenger/pedestrian, the risks of substance abuse, and the importance of using seat belts. Adolescents should not have the privilege of using motor vehicles unless they can show that they can do so safely.

The Oedipal complex (a child’s attraction to the parent of the opposite sex) is common during the adolescent years. Parents can deal with this by acknowledging the child’s physical changes and attractiveness without crossing parent-child boundaries. Parents can also take pride in the youth’s growth into maturity.

It is normal for the parent to find the adolescent attractive. This often happens because the teen often looks very much like the other (same-sex) parent did at a younger age. This attraction may cause the parent to feel awkward. The parent should be careful not to create a distance that may make the adolescent feel responsible. It is inappropriate for a parent’s attraction to a child to be anything more than an attraction as a parent. Attraction that crosses the parent-child boundaries may lead to inappropriately intimate behavior with the adolescent. This is known as incest.

The teenager’s quest to become independent is a normal part of development. The parent should not see it as a rejection or loss of control. Parents need to be constant and consistent. They should be available to listen to the child’s ideas without dominating the child’s independent identity.

Power struggles begin when authority is at stake or "being right" is the main issue. These situations should be avoided, if possible. One of the parties (typically the teen) will be overpowered. This will cause the youth to lose face. The adolescent may feel embarrassed, inadequate, resentful, and bitter as a result.

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