Air pollution_ a dark cloud of filth poisons the world’s cities _ global development _ the guardian

Foul air has blanketed much of urban Asia for many weeks already this winter. Gas engineer salary In Delhi, where there are nearly nine million vehicles, the high court has compared conditions to “living in a gas chamber”; Beijing and 10 other Chinese cities have issued red alert warnings; in Tehran, where the chairman of the city council, Mehdi Chamran, says air pollution kills up to 180 people a day, the smog has been so bad that schools have been closed and sports banned.

According to the World Health Organisation, the toxic fumes of growing numbers of diesel cars are combining with ammonia emissions from farming, wood and coal fires, tyre burning, open rubbish dumps, and dust from construction sites and brick kilns. Electricity billy elliot The consequence is a global crisis that threatens to overwhelm countries’ economies as people succumb to heart and respiratory diseases, blood vessel conditions, strokes, lung cancers and other long-term illnesses.

“It’s bad now, but we just don’t know what will happen in future,” says María Neira, WHO public health chief. Gas number density “This is the first generation in human experience exposed to such high levels of pollution. E payment electricity bill bangalore In the 19th century pollution was bad, but it was concentrated in just a few places. Electricity worksheets high school Now there are huge numbers of people living with high levels of pollution. Wd gaster theory Nearly 70% of people in cities are exposed to pollution above recommended levels.”

The problem is most acute in Asia, but many industrialised countries have been hit by smog this winter. Gas 93 Milan, Naples, Barcelona and some other cities in Spain declared an emergency and banned traffic for several days over Christmas; Poland’s most popular mountain resort, Zakopane, was choked in fumes; and several London streets breached their annual limits for nitrogen dioxide just days into 2016.

According to a recent study in Nature, led by Johannes Lelieveld, director of the Max Planck Institute for chemistry in Germany, more people now die from air pollution than malaria and HIV combined. Gas variables pogil key They include 1.4 million people a year in China and 650,000 in India. Gasco abu dhabi This compares with about 180,000 a year in Europe.

New WHO figures on 2,000 cities, to be released next month, will show pollution worsening in many countries. Arkansas gas prices At the last count in 2014, 15 out of the 20 most polluted places were in India and China. Gas 10 ethanol The others were in Pakistan, Iran and Bangladesh. 1 unit electricity cost in kerala Of the worst 100, nearly 70 were in Asia and only a handful in Europe or the US.

But the WHO figures include only those cities that measure air pollution, and many of the worst offenders do not. Electricity transmission “As the world urbanises, the pollution grows,” says Frank Kelly, director of environmental health research at King’s College London. Electricity grid code “We suspect that many African cities have terrible pollution problems, but there is very little data. Electricity magnetism and electromagnetism We know that places like Tehran are very polluted. Gas works park address In Europe the pollution is relatively clear in places like Germany, France and Britain, except for the diesel, but in eastern Europe, where they still have old industries, it is still very bad.”

After years of being discounted as an unavoidable cost of economic progress, air pollution is rising up the political and economic agendas, as developing countries grasp that the crisis threatens to cripple their economies and lead to simmering dissent. Electricity vancouver wa Most air polluted cities graph

According to a recent WHO study, the cost of disease and the premature deaths caused in Europe every year by air pollution was more than $1.6trillion in 2010, nearly 10% of the gross domestic product of the EU in 2013. Extra strength gas x while pregnant The UK was estimated to have suffered $83bn (£54bn) in costs associated with air pollution. 9game Elsewhere in Europe, the figures were Germany $145bn, and France $53bn. J gastrointest oncol impact factor The highest was in Bulgaria, which spent an estimated 29.5% of its GDP on the costs of air pollution fatalities.

More than 90% of citizens in the European region are exposed to annual levels of outdoor fine particulate matter above WHO’s air quality guidelines. Electricity and magnetism lecture notes This accounted for 482,000 premature deaths in 2012, from heart and respiratory diseases, blood vessel conditions and strokes, and lung cancer.

As concern over pollution grows, cities have begun to take action. Electricity labs high school On Friday, Delhi ended a two-week trial that took a third of the city’s three million private cars off the road by alternating entry to an odd and even number plates scheme and a ban on large diesel SUVs. Electricity in indian villages City authorities said the trial resulted in a 50% drop in air pollution “primarily caused by vehicular traffic”, but this is disputed.

China has recognised the problem and copied western countries by moving power stations out of cities. Gasco abu dhabi location This, along with years of heavy investment in renewable energy and increased fines for polluting industries, has improved air quality in some areas. Gas quality However, away from big cities such as Beijing and Shanghai pollution is still bad.

“It was inevitable in places like London in the 19th century, when health was not considered so important,” says Neira. Gas tax oregon “But today it is irresponsible to allow it, and the argument of economic development is not valid. Frictional electricity examples We need to develop a different culture in our cities. Electricity will not generally cause We need much better public policies.

“It needs social pressure and more awareness. Gas efficient cars under 5000 There is no going back. Electricity storage handbook People will not accept pollution. Electricity deregulation choices and challenges But not cities are aware how serious it is.”

If emissions continue to rise at current rates, the number of smog-induced deaths could double to more than six million a year by 2050, says Lelieveld.

“It is a grim scenario, but I doubt people will accept a doubling of pollution. Electricity use estimator It is a warning. Arkansas gas and oil commission Pollution is still getting worse, but the awareness is changing and there is a willingness to deal with the problem.” Global picture

The Chinese capital has long suffered from serious air pollution from coal burning and industry, but embarrassment at the Olympic Games, the closure of many factories and the removal of power plants from the centre have drastically cut pollution levels. Electricity projects for grade 6 There is a new willingness to deal with it, but pollution remains a big public health threat and Beijing was one of 10 Chinese cities that declared an emergency red alert last month.

The fast-growing Afghan capital city is one of the unhealthiest in the world, surrounded by hills that trap pollution for days on end and full of cars and buses burning low-quality fuel and millions of houses being warmed with wood and paraffin. V lab electricity According to doctors in the main hospital, air pollution is now the greatest cause of death, killing more than 3,000 people a year – more than from war, terrorism, road accidents or HIV and Aids. Us electricity hertz Air pollution is also bad in other Afghan cities such as Herat, Kandahar, Jalalabad and Mazar.

Iranian cities are among the most polluted. Gas in chest Last month the air in Tehran was so bad the city shut all schools, put emergency services on full alert and advised people with cardiac and respiratory problems, as well as pregnant women, to remain indoors. Electricity word search printable Some of the pollution in the city of five million cars has been blamed on sanctions on imports of refined petrol. Electricity merit badge worksheet answers This, it is said, has led to the use of low-quality alternatives.

Bangladeshi cities such as Dhaka, Narayanganj and Gazipur are some of the most polluted and fastest growing in the world. Electricity billy elliot chords Brick kilns, tyre burning, old cars and heavy traffic combine to make them dangerous to live in. Electricity towers in japan “What good is a growth rate of 6% if the air is unbreathable and puts people at high risks of respiratory diseases and other health problems?” a recent editorial in the New Age newspaper asked.

Air pollution in the fast-growing Nigerian city, the largest in Africa, is reaching dangerous levels. Gas in back and stomach But, as in many cities on the continent, there’s little monitoring of pollution and no accurate information on fuel consumption. Electricity prices per kwh 2013 Pollution is likely to be as bad as the worst of Indian and Chinese cities.

Los Angeles used to be notorious for its smogs but cleaner cars and better regulation has improved air quality. Electricity games Some of the worst air in the US is now found in nearby Bakersfield in the San Joaquin Valley, a farming area surrounded by mountains that trap pollution from traffic and agricultural emissions. Grade 9 electricity unit test answers Warm weather often leads to dangerous photo-chemical smogs.

Peru’s capital has the worst pollution in Latin America, according to a 2014 study by the World Health Organisation. Gaston yla agrupacion santa fe Poor fuel, old buses and cars and the city’s geography between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west, all make the air foul at times. Tgas advisors company profile Nearly 80% of the estimated 5,000 deaths a year from pollution may be caused by the city’s fleet of old minivans and buses. Electricity icons free The many poor areas are the most polluted and are often sited close to open waste dumps and other sources of pollution.

Air quality in the Egyptian capital city of more than seven million people is often 100 times above World Health Organisation safe limits. Power outage houston today The toxic fumes of a million mostly old cars mixes with smoke from farmers burning rice straw, industrial pollutants and desert and construction work dust. Electricity voltage in germany Heart disease, stroke and respiratory infections are now among the top four causes of premature death in the capital. Electricity worksheets ks1 In August of last year, the Egyptian environment ministry declared a state of emergency to deal with a thick layer of pollution that hung over the city for days.

With 9 million vehicles and 25 million people, Delhi is possibly the most polluted mega-city in the world, often covered in a foul-smelling toxic haze. Electricity and circuits The pollution was so bad last month that the city authorities imposed an on- and off-traffic system to try to reduce the number of cars of the choked roads. Electricity vs magnetism venn diagram It also banned large diesel SUVs for two weeks but the full effects have not been analysed.

Once known for its smogs because of massive coal burning, it is now plagued with noxious NO 2 gas from hundreds of thousands of diesel engines and the particulates emitted by taxis, central heating systems and construction sites. Electricity 2pm lyrics The government does not expect the city to meet legal pollution levels until 2025. Gas law questions and answers Last week London breached its own legal limit on air pollution for the whole of 2016 in just over seven days.

• This article was amended on 18 January 2016. F gas regulations An earlier version said that Mehdi Chamran is Tehran’s mayor; he is chairman of the city council.