Akts advanced thermal analysis software – dsc dta tg tg-ms tg-ftir ega tma gas pain in shoulder


Often, chemical incidents are due to a loss of the reaction control, resulting in runaway process. Many of these incidents can be foreseen and avoided, if an appropriate analysis of thermal process data is performed in the proper way and in due time[1-9]. Chemical process safety is seldom part of university curricula and many professionals do not have the appropriate knowledge to interpret thermal data, collected during the reaction course, in terms of risks. a gas is a form of matter that Process safety is often considered as highly specialized matter, thus companies employ specialists in their safety departments. However, safety knowledge is also required, where processes are developed or performed, that is in process development departments and production. Therefore, AKTS[6] has developed a new Reaction Calorimetry software (called ‘AKTS-Reaction Calorimetry software’) dedicated to ‘synthesis’ reactions (referred to in the text as ‘desired’ reactions) and techniques allowing those to be mastered at an industrial scale.

The approach focuses on the dynamic stability of chemical reactors and criteria to be used for the assessment of such stability. The behaviour of reactors under normal operating conditions is a prerequisite for safe operation, but is not sufficient by itself. Therefore, different reactor types can be considered in terms of their specific safety problems, particularly in the case of deviations from their normal operating conditions. This requires a specific approach for any type of reaction kinetics and each reactor type, including a study of the mass and heat balances, which are the basis of safe temperature control. electricity and circuits class 6 questions The analysis of the different reactor types and the general principles used in their design and temperature control enable the investigation of the ‘desired’ and ‘undesired’ reactions (formation of by-products and thermal decomposition), including the possibility to study the thermal behaviour in cases where the temperature control system fails (adiabatic temperature mode). Such systematic consideration of a broad variety of reaction systems and user friendly software represent the backbone of this new software, in which the techniques used for the optimization of the reactions and assessment of thermal risks are presented in a logical and understandable way, with a strong link to industrial practice.

AKTS-Thermokinetics software (thermal aging & safety versions)[6-9] is currently applied for the thermal hazard evaluation of ‘undesired’ reactions that may lead to ‘thermal runaway’ (see red zone of Fig.8.1). This information is very important for the determination of the heat accumulation and temperature of runaway reactions of energetic chemicals under adiabatic and non-adiabatic conditions. The method includes the determination of the key safety parameters such as:

The AKTS-Reaction Calorimetry software is implemented in the same vein as the AKTS-Thermokinetics software. This new software focuses on the investigation of the course of ‘desired’ reactions (see blue zone of Fig.1.1). It provides chemical and synthesis information as well as kinetic, chemical reaction engineering, calorimetric and thermal safety characteristics of the process. Once implemented, the tool provides a means to infer additional characteristics and behaviour of the examined reactions based on conventional calorimetric measurements. The method will begin with the determination of the kinetic parameters for a given reaction system. These parameters are then used to predict the rate and progress of the ‘desired’ reactions in different reactor types and sizes under various temperature programs.

The modeling of the reaction course in the adiabatic temperature mode is very important because chemical incidents are very often due to loss of control, resulting in runaway reactions. electricity kwh cost With the new AKTS-Reaction Calorimetry software, many of these incidents can be foreseen and avoided because an appropriate analysis of thermal process data can be performed in the proper way and in due time. The proposed method for the description of the different types of behaviour, which combines kinetic and chemical engineering principles, is presented in Fig. 1.2. This scheme presents the safety aspects of various reactors with a strong emphasis on temperature control strategies allowing safe processes. All reactor types commonly used in the industry can be analyzed with the different temperature control strategies. For the semi-batch reactor the temperature but also the feed control strategies reducing the accumulation of non-converted reactants are both crucial. In addition, AKTS-Reaction Calorimetry software allows predicting the reaction course of exothermic reactions carried out in continuous reactors (Continuous Stirred Tank, Plug Flow and Micro-Reactors). power outage houston reliant Another important part is dedicated to the heat balance of reactors. The temperature control requires technical means that may strongly influence operation safety. Therefore, the technical aspects of heat transfer and the estimation of heat transfer coefficients play an important role. Because risk reducing measures are often required to maintain safe operation, such as during the failure of the process control system, the new tool is specifically dedicated to the evaluation of the control of a runaway reaction and the recognition and design of appropriate risk reducing measures. gas what i smoke Illustrative examples are presented below.

The following examples illustrate the concept and possibilities of AKTS-Reaction Calorimetry software. Displayed examples are based on kinetic parameters arbitrarily chosen for illustration purpose. With the new AKTS-Reaction Calorimetry software such evaluations can be based on kinetic parameters evaluated from the experimental data by applying numerical techniques such as non-linear optimization devoted to the most common calorimetric methods used in safety laboratories. The determination of the kinetic parameters by isoconversional analysis is possible too. In the current illustrative example the following reactions are considered: