Alcor faq – technical m gasbuddy


A. It is a myth that brain death occurs after only a few minutes without gas vs diesel generator oxygen. In medicine, brain death refers to an irreversible loss of all activity of the entire brain, including brain stem, in a patient being maintained on life support. To formally diagnose “brain death” in a patient who has suffered cardiac death (stopped heart), it is necessary to first restart blood circulation and perform neurological tests many hours later. A diagnosis of brain death cannot be made in absence of blood circulation because the brain cannot reveal its true state unless it has access to a supply of oxygen and nutrients.

It’s true that a patient deprived of oxygen at normal body temperature for many minutes, and then revived, will likely be diagnosed as brain dead the next day electricity pick up lines. But this is not because brain death was acutely caused by the period of time without oxygen. It would be more electricity dance moms full episode accurate to say that brain death was caused by resuscitation in absence of adequate technology to stop the injured brain from self-destructing in the hours following resuscitation.

The basic structural and chemical integrity of a brain in the first minutes and even hours after cardiac death is surprisingly good. It’s the restoration of warm blood circulation to an injured brain that is ultimately deadly, and that results in destruction that even future technology could not easily reverse (brain death). This is why the prognosis of patients declared “brain dead” while on life support is poor even electricity generation definition for cryonics. Most candidates for cryonics suffer cardiac death, which is more electricity bill saudi electricity company amenable to future medical repair than brain death as currently defined.

A: Alcor’s patients are kept in liquid nitrogen, which is very cold. To prevent both the patient and the liquid nitrogen from warming up, they are kept in a giant stainless steel Thermos bottle called a Bigfoot Dewar or simply a Bigfoot. Each Bigfoot is a double-layered giant cup that is 10′ 6 tall and 43 in diameter. A vacuum and reflective surfaces between the inner and outer layers prevent heat from entering. This electricity notes concept was invented by Sir James Dewar in 1892 and has been used ever since both by picnickers and scientists to keep hot things hot and cold things cold. (John Dewar, who brought us Dewar’s Scotch Whiskey, was a different person).

Alcor’s Bigfoot Dewars have a wide mouth so that patients can be easily added and removed using a special crane. They have a 24 deep Styrofoam plug that fits into the top to keep heat from entering. Each Bigfoot Dewar can hold four whole body gas prices going up to 5 dollars patients and five neuropatients. Each whole body patient occupies one pie-shaped quadrant of the Dewar. The central column holds the five neuro patients. The space occupied by each whole body patient can also be used to store ten neuro patients, so a single Bigfoot could also be used to hold 45 neuro patients — 10 in each quadrant and 5 in the central column. The name Bigfoot comes from the large casters at the electricity jeopardy bottom.

An important performance parameter for a Bigfoot is the boil-off. Each day, some of the liquid nitrogen in the Bigfoot heats up and boils away as nitrogen gas. Alcor’s Bigfoot electricity sound effect mp3 free download Dewars have boil-off rates anywhere from 10 to 15 liters of liquid nitrogen per day, depending on several factors including poorly understood details of fabrication.

A: While background radiation is about 2.4 millisieverts (mSv) per year ( PDF reference) about half that dose is from inhaled gases, mainly radon, that cryopreserved patients would not receive. A lethal dose by today’s medical standards is about 10,000 mSv ( reference 1 or reference 2). Therefore, a cryopreserved patient will electricity bill calculator accumulate a lethal dose in about 8,000 years.

Fixation and storage at ambient temperature has sometimes been proposed as a low-maintenance version of cryonics. This approach is biologically inferior to good cryopreservation for several reasons. First, good chemical fixation is hard to do, and requires multiple agents to effectively preserve all major cell components. Some of these agents are expensive and extremely hazardous chemicals. Any imperfections in fixation would result electricity and magnetism purcell pdf in decaying tissue, whereas defects in cryoprotective perfusion during cryopreservation only result in tissue freezing rather vitrifying; a limited degree of damage that ends with stability. Second, even the best fixation methods only stabilize a subset of biological molecules by attaching to certain points on the molecules. In contrast, cryopreservation electricity history by vitrification provides guaranteed stabilization of every molecule present by turning the whole system solid. Finally, because vitrification is based on solutions and procedures developed for preservation and recovery of living tissue, tissue preserved using state-of-the-art vitrification solutions are intrinsically closer to viability, and normal biological condition, than tissue preserved using techniques developed for histological endpoints.

Fixation in combination with vitrification theoretically provides added security if a vitrified patient were ever to be prematurely warmed. However fixation has been found to worsen gas finder app freezing injury by causing intracellular ice formation, so it would increase harm to tissue in areas that didn’t successfully vitrify. Also, fixation commits patients to a very high level of future mp electricity bill payment technology for revival; a level higher than may be required to reverse cryopreservation alone, especially as cryopreservation technology improves. The use of fixation, either alone or in combination with cryopreservation, is therefore incompatible with the development of methods for reversible suspended animation using any near-term technology.