An exact bond option formula request pdf gas leak in house

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The recent financial crisis has led to so-called multi-curve models for the term structure. Here we study a multi-curve extension of short rate models where, in addition to the short rate itself, we introduce short rate spreads. In particular, we consider a Gaussian factor model where the short rate and the spreads are second order polynomials of Gaussian factor processes. This leads to an exponentially quadratic model class that is less well known than the exponentially affine class. In the latter class the gas and bloating after miscarriage factors enter linearly and for positivity one considers square root factor processes. While the square root factors in the affine class have more involved distributions, in the quadratic class the factors remain Gaussian and this leads to various advantages, in particular for derivative pricing. After some preliminaries on martingale modeling in the multi-curve setup, we concentrate on pricing of linear and optional derivatives. For linear derivatives, we exhibit an adjustment factor that allows one to pass from pre-crisis single curve values to the corresponding post-crisis multi-curve values.

Under a guaranteed annuity option, an insurer guarantees to convert a policyholder’s accumulated funds to a life annuity at a fixed rate when the policy matures. If the annuity rates provided under the guarantee are more beneficial to the policyholder than the prevailing rates in the market the insurer has to make up the difference. Such guarantees are common in many US tax sheltered insurance products. These guarantees were popular in UK retirement savings contracts issued in the 1970’s and 1980’s when long-term interest rates were high. At that time, the options were very far out of the money electricity projects for grade 6 and insurance companies apparently assumed that interest rates would remain high and thus that the guarantees would never become active. In the 1990’s, as long-term interest rates began to fall, the value of these guarantees rose. Because of the way the guarantee was written, two other factors influenced the cost of these guarantees. First, strong stock market performance meant that the amounts to which the guarantee applied increased significantly. Second, the mortality assumption implicit in the guarantee did not anticipate the improvement in mortality which actually occurred. The emerging liabilities under these guarantees threatened the solvency of some companies and led to the closure of Equitable Life (UK) to new business. In this paper we explore the pricing and risk management of these guarantees.

This article examines the pricing of guaranteed annuity options (GAOs) in a stochastic volatility and interest rate model. While the pricing of these options in a stochastic volatility and interest rate model has been examined in van Haastrecht, Plat, and Pelsser (2010. Insurance: Mathematics and Economics 47:266–77), the pricing is difficult under the general stochastic volatility environment. In order to overcome these difficulties, we examined the asymptotic expansion method introduced by Kim and Kunitomo (1999. Asia-Pacific Financial Markets 6:49–70) and extended by Kim (2002. Journal of the Operations Research Society of Japan 45:404–25), and Kunitomo and Kim (2007. Japanese Economic Review 58:71–106). The asymptotic expansion method obtains a closed-form approximation formula for the price of GAOs in a general stochastic volatility environment including the Schöbel–Zhu–Hull–White model and the Heston–Hull–White model, for example. We confirm the accuracy of the asymptotic expansion methods by numerical demonstrations. The sensitivity analysis of the options price to changes in the parameters for the stochastic volatility process is also analyzed.

This paper extends the fast Fourier transform (FFT) network to interest derivative valuation under the Hull–White model driven by a Lévy process. The classical trinomial tree for the Hull–White model is a widely adopted approach in practice, but fails to accommodate the change in the driving stochastic process. Recent finance research supports the use of a Lévy process to replace Brownian motion in stochastic modeling. The FFT network overcomes the drawback of the trinomial approach but maintains its advantages in super-calibration to the term structure of interest rate and efficient computation to various kinds of interest rate derivatives under Lévy processes. The FFT network only o gascon requires knowledge of the characteristic function of the Lévy process driving the interest rate process, but not of the interest rate process itself. The numerical comparison between the closed-form solutions of interest rate caps and swaptions and those from FFT network confirms that the proposed network is accurate and efficient. We also demonstrate its use in pricing Bermudan swaptions and other American-style options. Finally, the FFT network is expanded to accommodate path-dependent variables, and is applied to interest rate target redemption notes and a range of accrual notes.

In this paper, we analize a novel approach for calibrating the one-factor and the two-factor Hull–White models using swaptions under a market-consistent framework. The technique is based on the pricing formulas for coupon bond options and electricity jokes swaptions proposed by Russo and Fabozzi (J Fixed Income 25:76–82, 2016b; J Fixed Income 27:30–36, 2017b). Under this approach, the volatility of the coupon bond is derived as a function of the stochastic durations. Consequently, the price of coupon bond options and swaptions can be calculated by simply applying standard no-arbitrage pricing theory given the equivalence between the price of a coupon bond option and the price of the corresponding swaption. This approach can be adopted to calibrate parameters of the one-factor and the two-factor Hull–White models using swaptions quoted in the market. It represents an alternative with respect to the existing approaches proposed in the literature and currently used by practitioners. Numerical analyses electricity worksheets grade 9 are provided in order to highlight the quality of the calibration results in comparison with existing models, addressing some computational issues related to the optimization model. In particular, calibration results and sensitivities are provided for the one- and the two-factor models using market data from 2011 to 2016. Finally, an out-of-sample analysis is performed in order to test the ability of the model in fitting swaption prices different from those used in the calibration process.

The long history of the theory of option pricing began in 1900 when the French mathematician Louis Bachelier deduced an option pricing formula based on the assumption that stock prices follow a Brownian motion with zero drift. Since that time, numerous researchers have contributed to the theory. The present paper begins by deducing a set of restrictions on option pricing formulas from the assumption that investors prefer more to less. These restrictions are necessary conditions for a formula to be consistent with a rational pricing theory. Attention is given to the problems created when dividends are paid on the underlying common stock and when the terms of the option contract can be changed explicitly by a change in exercise price or implicitly by a shift in the investment or capital structure policy of the firm. Since the deduced restrictions are not sufficient to uniquely determine an option pricing formula, additional assumptions are introduced to examine and extend the seminal Black-Scholes theory of option pricing. Explicit formulas for pricing both call and put options as well as for warrants and the new down-and-out option are derived. The effects of dividends and call provisions on the warrant price are examined. The possibilities for further extension of the theory to the pricing of corporate liabilities are discussed.

A self-contained theory is presented for pricing and hedging LIBOR and swap derivatives by arbitrage. Appropriate payoff homogeneity and measurability conditions are identified which guarantee that a given payoff can be attained by a self-financing trading strategy. LIBOR and swap derivatives satisfy this condition, implying they can be priced and hedged with a finite number of zero-coupon bonds, … [Show full abstract] even when there is no instantaneous saving bond. Notion of locally arbitrage-free price system is introduced and equivalent criteria established. Stochastic differential equations are derived for term structures of forward libor and swap rates, and shown to have a unique positive solution when the percentage volatility function is bounded, implying existence of an arbitrage-free model with such volatility specification. The construction is explicit for the lognormal LIBOR and swap market models, the former following Musiela and Rutkowski (1995). Primary examples of LIBOR and swap derivatives are discussed and appropriate practical models suggested for p gasket 300tdi each. View full-text Discover more