Angiosarcoma of uterine cervix gas examples

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• A previously performed radiotherapy for other cancer conditions, called radiation-induced angiosarcoma. The radiation has an expected side effect of damaging the genetic material in the normal cells. This can lead to the development of a “secondary” cancer

It is important to note that having a risk factor does not mean that one will get the condition. A risk factor increases ones chances of getting a condition compared to an individual without the risk factors. Some risk factors are more important than others.

Also, not having a risk factor does not mean that an individual will not get the condition. It is always important to discuss the effect of risk factors with your healthcare provider. What are the Causes of Angiosarcoma of Uterine Cervix? (Etiology)

• MRI scans of the abdomen and pelvis: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a magnetic field to create high-quality pictures of certain parts of the body, such as tissues, muscles, nerves, and bones. These high-quality pictures may reveal the presence of the tumor

• Colposcopic biopsy: The abnormal areas of the cervix are visualized with a colposcope. After numbing the cervix with a local anesthetic, an instrument, called a biopsy forceps, is used to get a tissue sample. Mild cramps, pain, and some light bleeding, may occur following the procedure

• Endocervical curettage (endocervical scraping): The curette is an instrument that can be used to scrape out tissue. Using a curette, cells are scraped out from the endocervix (the inner part of the cervix, close to the uterus/womb) and examined under a microscope. Mild pain and bleeding maybe present following the procedure.

Cone biopsy or conization: This procedure is only helpful if the tumors are small enough to be completely excised by conization surgical procedure. In a majority of cases of Cervical Angiosarcoma, the tumor is diagnosed in the advanced stages, and hence, conization is rarely helpful.

• Loop electrosurgical procedure (LEEP, LLETZ): After numbing the area with a local anesthetic, a wire loop heated with electricity is used to remove a tissue specimen. This procedure, lasting about 10 minutes, may cause some cramping and mild-to-moderate bleeding, for a few weeks

Many clinical conditions may have similar signs and symptoms. Your healthcare provider may perform additional tests to rule out other clinical conditions to arrive at a definitive diagnosis. What are the possible Complications of Angiosarcoma of Uterine Cervix?

Stage II cervical cancer: The cancer has spread beyond the uterus, but not onto the pelvic wall (the tissues that line the part of the body between the hips), or to the lower third of the vagina. Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB, based on how far the cancer has spread.

Stage IV cervical cancer: In stage IV, the cancer has spread beyond the pelvis, or can be seen in the lining of the bladder and/or rectum, or has spread to other parts of the body. Stage IV is divided into stages IVA and IVB, based on where the cancer has spread.

• Hysterectomy: In this procedure, the uterus and cervix are removed. This is done by making an incision on the abdomen (termed abdominal hysterectomy), or through the vagina (termed vaginal hysterectomy), or by using a laparoscope (termed laparoscopic hysterectomy). Surgery is performed under general or epidural anesthesia, though the ability to have children is lost. Complications, such as bleeding, infection, or damage to the urinary tract, or the intestinal system may occur in rare cases

• Radical hysterectomy: The uterus, cervix, the upper part of the vagina and tissues, next to the uterus are removed. Additionally, some pelvic lymph nodes may also be surgically taken out. The surgery is performed under anesthesia and may be carried out, via an incision made on the abdomen or by using laparoscopy. With this invasive procedure, the ability to have children is lost. Rarely, complications such as bleeding, infection, or damage to the urinary tract or the intestinal system, may occur. Removal of lymph nodes may lead to swelling of legs (lymphedema)

• Pelvic exenteration: The uterus, tissues surrounding the uterus, cervix, pelvic lymph nodes, and the upper part of the vagina, are removed. In addition, depending on the tumor spread, the remainder of the vagina, the bladder, rectum, and a part of the colon, may also be removed. Recovery from this surgery takes a long period

• The best treatment practice for Angiosarcoma of Cervix involves a combination of radiotherapy with surgical intervention. However, given the high rate of recurrence and metastasis, the long-term outcome (5-year) is poor for most individuals

• The combination chemotherapy drugs used, may have some severe side effects (like cardio-toxicity). This chiefly impacts the elderly adults, or those who are already affected by other medical conditions. Individuals, who tolerate chemotherapy sessions better, generally have better outcomes

Kim, S. I., Lim, M. C., Lee, J. S., Kim, Y. J., Seo, S. S., Kang, S., … & Park, S. Y. (2016). Comparison of Lower Extremity Edema in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Pretreatment Laparoscopic Surgical Staging with Tailored Radiotherapy Versus Primary Radiotherapy. Annals of surgical oncology, 23(1), 203-210.

Ohayi, S. A., Ezugwu, E. C., Aderibigbe, A. S., & Udeh, E. I. (2012). Angiosarcoma of the cervix: a case and literature review. Nigerian journal of medicine: journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria, 22(4), 362-364.

Suzuki, S., Tanioka, F., Minato, H., Ayhan, A., Kasami, M., & Sugimura, H. (2014). Breakages at YWHAE, FAM22A, and FAM22B loci in uterine angiosarcoma: a case report with immunohistochemical and genetic analysis. Pathology-Research and Practice, 210(2), 130-134.

Bonetti, L. R., Boselli, F., Lupi, M., Bettelli, S., Schirosi, L., Bigiani, N., … & Rivasi, F. (2009). Expression of estrogen receptor in hemangioma of the uterine cervix: reports of three cases and review of the literature. Archives of gynecology and obstetrics, 280(3), 469-472. Reviewed and Approved by a member of the DoveMed Editorial Board First uploaded: Oct. 9, 2016 Last updated: April 30, 2018