Antarctic ozone hole believed to be shrinking _ pbs newshour

185485 185486 185486 Antarctic ozone hole believed to be shrinking Scientists studying climate change in Antarctica reported this week that a hole in the protective ozone layer of the Earth’s atmosphere has shrunk. Electricity deregulation wikipedia The discovery of the hole in the 1980s led to a worldwide phasing out of ozone-depleting chemicals once used in products from hairspray to air conditioners. Gas prices map Alexandra Witze, reporter for “Nature” Magazine, joins Hari Sreenivasan from Denver to discuss. Electricity generation in california 2016-07-02 16:24:00 disabled 2365795525 5sUSFIgFePw 201936 201954 The sacred and the scientific clash on Hawaii’s Mauna Kea Over a thousand years ago, Polynesians followed the stars in the Mauna Kea sky on their path to Hawaii. Ortega y gasset Those stars are now of interest to astronomers, who believe the mountain’s summit is the perfect spot to build a giant, cutting-edge telescope. Npower electricity power cut But native Hawaiians view that peak as a sacred space. Year 6 electricity Science correspondent Miles O’Brien reports for the second in our series about the controversy. Gas oil mix ratio chart 2016-12-21 18:00:00×196.jpg 2365919896 onERw0-ixLA 201565 201559 Black lung disease more common among miners than reported Lung disease is a well-known deadly consequence of working in the coal industry. K gas station jobs But a new NPR study finds miners are suffering from the most advanced form of the disease at a rate ten times higher than the government has reported. Gas upper stomach Hari Sreenivasan speaks with NPR’s Howard Berkes about the causes of this late-stage lung disease, possibilities for treatment and why it’s been direly underestimated. Electricity voltage in paris 2016-12-16 18:00:00×196.jpg 2365917143 d-lasggfisg 201318 201335 Sacred mountain is focal point in fight over giant telescope Astronomers believe that the perfect spot for the next big observatory is atop the summit of Mauna Kea in Hawaii. Cheapest gas in texas But the proposed location for the $1.4 billion project is on land sacred to the native Hawaiian culture, and a legal challenge over the project has halted construction. Gas utility bill Science correspondent Miles O’Brien reports. Electricity usage 2016-12-14 18:00:00×196.jpg 2365915353 ofu89Dy-2hg

HARI SREENIVASAN, PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND ANCHOR: Scientists studying climate change in Antarctica reported this week that the hole in the protected ozone layer of the earth’s atmosphere has shrunk. Electricity transmission loss The discovery of the hole in the mid-1980s led to a worldwide facing out of ozone-depleting chemicals known as chlorofluorocarbons, which had been used in products ranging from hairspray to air conditioners.

Joining me now from Denver to discuss how that policy has worked and how the hole is healing is Alexandra Witze, a reporter for “Nature Magazine”.

So, I guess the first thing is, is that this is sort of a success story. Gas 2015 I mean, humanity actually together, did something and that we’re seeing some results.

ALEXANDRA WITZE, NATURE MAGAZINE: Yes, it’s a pretty rare environmental success story. 3 gases that cause global warming I mean, you can say that we caused the problem in the first place by emitting all these chemicals, but the world basically got together and in 1987, put together a global treaty called the Montreal Protocol that essentially banned these chemicals that had been chewing away at the ozone layer.

HARI SREENIVASAN: And this — I should be sure to mention that this doesn’t mean that everything is fixed. Electricity 1800s This is a long slow process. Gas bubble in back They’re just finding that it’s gotten better.

ALEXANDRA WITZE: Sure. Electricity human body What the scientists announced this week is that year over year, on average, the ozone hole is getting just a little bit smaller every year. Gas up asheville From 2000 to 2015, it shrank by 4 million square kilometers over that whole period. A gaseous mixture contains It doesn’t sound like a whole lot, but it means that overtime, this opening that is letting all these nasty ultraviolet radiation is gradually shrinking and that’s good news for us here in earth.

HARI SREENIVASAN: This is the hole that they measure is primarily over the South Pole. Gas vs diesel cars The ozone layer, of course, is over the entire planet, right?

ALEXANDRA WITZE: Yes. M gasbuddy So, ozone is kind of like a protected shield in the upper atmosphere. Electricity voltage in china You can think of it like a blanket enveloping the earth and protecting us from these ultraviolet rays. Q gas station cleveland ohio What happens is these chemicals that are emitted get caught up into the upper atmosphere and they get transported towards the Polar Regions. Wd gaster theme And over the South Pole, they start to trigger these chemical reactions that chew away at this protected blanket.

So, even though ozone is all around the planet, and even though we’re emitting stuff, you know, around cities, what happens is these chemicals get transported down to the South Pole. Electricity vocabulary words And so, that’s where we see the hole opening up every year.

HARI SREENIVASAN: And last year, or maybe it was a year before, I can’t remember, some volcanic eruptions actually had a negative impact on this. Gas relief while pregnant So, even though we weren’t cranking out the hairspray cans, the earth still has the ability to disrupt the ozone layer.

ALEXANDRA WITZE: Yes, this was one of the really puzzling things last year. Gasbuddy app In October, scientists saw one of the biggest ozone holes on record, and they didn’t really understand why, because we’ve been phasing out these chemicals and everything seemed to be on track to healing. Electricity symbols worksheet It turned out it was a volcano to blame. Kansas gas service bill pay There was an eruption in Chile in April of last year, and basically, the particles that this eruption put out go into the upper atmosphere and they also start to trigger the same ozone-destroying reactions.

HARI SREENIVASAN: It seems that perhaps it’s the narrow focus of the chemicals in terms of why this worked. La gasolina daddy yankee mp3 I mean, because a lot of people will ask, well, why can’t humanity get together like this around climate change and carbon emissions overall?

ALEXANDRA WITZE: Yes, this was sort of a tractable problem, as environmental problems go. Electricity around the world I mean, there is a huge industry, of course, that made these air conditioners and refrigerants that had these chemicals. Electricity history in india But basically, technology came up with alternatives. Gasoline p And so, we were able to swap out the air conditioners and the refrigerants that had these nasty ozone-destroying chemicals with ones that didn’t.

So, that was a fairly easy problem — not easy but a doable problem to solve. Electricity merit badge worksheet It’s harder with greenhouse gasses and carbon pollution because they’re so many sources, right? Power plants, deforestations, cement production. U gas hampton It’s not just one thing to swap out for the climate change and carbon emissions.

So, that’s — there might be lessons to learn, I think, from the ozone success story but it’s going to be a lot bigger challenge with climate change.