Articles – hydrostatic testing electricity drinking game


1.0 The weight expansion measurement system (WEMS) incorporates the methodology of volumetric expansion by measuring the weight (rather than the volume) of water displaced in a volumetric expansion test. The WEMS uses a siphon tube instead of an open top burette tube to measure the weight of the water displaced. The WEMS is based upon the scientific correlation between the volume of water and the weight of water: 1 cubic centimeter of water weighs 1 gram of water (at 4 degrees Celsius). Therefore the WEMS simply measures the weight of water displaced by using a weigh container on a digital weigh scale or load cell, and then determines the expansion of water displaced.

1.1 The weight expansion measurement system has certain practical advantages over the burette system. Most importantly it eliminates any possibility for operator interpretation error during burette meniscus expansion readings. gas bubble in eye Second, the expansion volumes can easily be determined with great precision and then communicated to operators or to computer-controlled automated testing systems. In addition, WEMS eliminates the need for fragile glass burette tubes and plumbing to multiple burette tubes.

1.2 However, there are several factors that must be addressed to ensure the accuracy of the WEMS: temperature, the buoyancy effect of the siphon tube, the effect of water column height, and the accuracy of the weight measurement device. All of these factors may affect the accuracy of the weight expansion readings unless adjustments are made to account for their impact on the readings.

1.3 The effects of water column height change and buoyancy of the siphon tube can be easily determined by pouring a known quantity of water into the expansion measurement container when the device is open to a test jacket. The weight measurement device can be easily tested and verified by using a calibrated reference weight to determine its accuracy. Water density changes due to temperature can be corrected mathematically using known water density values at various temperatures (See Appendix B).

1.4 In a hydrostatic testing system, the above factors can operate inversely such that the aggregate impact of all effects combined has a negligible impact on the accuracy of the expansion values derived. Various tests have been conducted to verify that such combined effects do have a very minute effect on expansion values at ambient temperatures around 22 Centigrade.

1.5 The accuracy of a weight measurement device is tested by placing a calibrated reference weight upon it to verify its accuracy. Next, 100 cubic centimeters of water at ambient temperature is weighed into a container using another calibrated digital scale with a resulting weight of 99.7 grams (see Appendix B for resulting weights at different temperatures). t gastrobar The 100 cubic centimeters of water are then poured into a 3 liter square expansion container that rests on the expansion measuring weigh scale. Expansion weight values are then recorded. The process is repeated in 100 cc increments with expansion weight measurements being recorded respectively at each 100 cc volume level.

This letter pertains to the recent changes to the calibration values for your calibrated cylinders. gas near me Galiso technicians have found this to be necessary on many Recortest 4 installations and upgrades. The reasons that the cylinder values are no longer correct are thinning of the cylinder walls due to corrosion and or incorrect previous calibration.

Calibrating a cylinder on site with the installed / upgraded machine requires a check of each of the 4 calibration accuracy issues to establish that the cylinder calibration values that are done on site are accurate. When there is a discrepancy in prior calibration values to present ones, a check of each of these four calibration accuracy issues is important to prove the new calibration data is correct.

Regarding issue 1, the Recortest 4 uses a digital pressure transducer that is a high accuracy, traceable pressure standard suitable for calibration of cylinders. Because the .02% accuracy of this transducer is better than the .25% accuracy of the master gauge the master gauge is used to confirm that the transducer is functioning properly but we do not calibrate the digital transducer to the gauge. This we believe is a major factor in the need for us to re calibrate cylinders during Recortest 4 installations and upgrades. Prior to the installation / upgrade it was possible to adjust the pressure transducer to match the expansion values. gas zombies black ops We also verify that the pressure circuit comprised of the high pressure pump, valves and tubing, hoses, test head, and cylinder are not leaking.

Regarding issue 3, When the ambient temperature is 4 degrees c / 39 degrees f, one cc of water weighs 1 gram but at 40c/104f room temperature, one cc of water weighs .992 grams which is a accuracy loss of negative .8%. By determining the ambient temperature we can correct its effect on the weight of water when we perform a pour test to verify the accuracy and leak integrity of the complete expansion circuit comprised of the weigh bowl, siphon tube, plumbing and valves, test jacket, test head and cylinder.

Regarding issue 4, We determine the effect of siphon tube buoyancy on the system that will be used to create calibration cylinder values. To do this we open the expansion circuit to the weigh bowl with the cylinder to be calibrated in the test jacket. Then we pour 100cc of water into a cup on a separate scale by using the weight of water at ambient temperature. For example if the ambient temperature is 20 degrees c / 68 degrees f, then we would pour 99.8 grams of water into the cup. Next we pour the water out of the cup into the weigh bowl of the Recortest 4 that is connected to the test jacket with the calibrated cylinder. This test is performed several times to verify that the complete expansion circuit is accurate and stable.

We then run repeated tests at each calibration pressure to gather the expansion data for each pressure point. Finally we check the linearity of all calibration points and then create a certificate of expansion values for the calibrated cylinder. If you have any further questions about this work please feel free to contact our service team anytime.

In some cases, calibrated cylinder eccentricity may cause expansion reading problems. gas 2 chainz Prior to performing any test system adjustments, the calibrated cylinder should be pressurized to 1000 psi higher than the highest test pressure used that day. (Not to exceed the highest pressure rating of the calibrated cylinder). After pressurizing and relieving the cylinder three times, re-run the expansion value checks. Note also that temperature variations may affect cylinder expansion results.

In accordance with 49 CFR 173.34 (e) (4), the calibrated cylinder is used on a daily basis to ensure that the Hydrostatic Test System being used is operating properly and to check system calibration. electricity water hose analogy To check-out the test system, the calibrated cylinder is pressurized to the Cylinder Calibration Certificate pressure values. The resulting test system expansion values are then compared to the cylinder Calibration Certificate expansion values. If the test system expansion values do not match within 1.0 %, the test system must be inspected to determine if adjustments and/or measuring device calibrations are required. System Verification – 49 CFR 173.34(e)(4)(iii)(B)

The Test System must be verified in all Test Jackets that will be used that day. Pressures can be split up between jackets to verify system functionality. For example, it is acceptable to pressurize the calibrated cylinder in one jacket to 3,000 psi, and the calibrated cylinder in another jacket to 4,000 psi, thereby verifying the Pressure Indicating Device, and the Test System for both jackets through the range of test pressures from 3,000 to 4,500 psi. System must be verified to be accurate to within 1% at within 500 psi of each test pressure to be used that day. This procedure will result in the complete system being verified throughout the range of test pressures. electricity 220 volts wiring It should be noted that not every pressure nor every expansion level will be verified in every test jacket. However, since the Pressure Transducer (Pressure Indicating Device) is common to the entire system, once verified for a given pressure in one jacket, it is thereby verified for the entire system. Likewise, since the Load Cell (Expansion Indicating Device) is common to the entire system, the expansion verification of the device is accomplished in any of the common jackets. The reason for pressurizing the Calibrated Cylinder in every jacket is to verify the functionality of the individual jacket, not to verify the calibration of the Pressure / Expansion Indicating Devices for every jacket.

Galiso supplies calibrated cylinders in two size groups, the SCC (Short Calibrated Cylinder) and the LCC (Long Calibrated Cylinder. In accordance with D.O.T regulations, hydrostatic test systems must be checked daily to assure the accuracy of the test system. npower electricity bill The calibrated cylinder is a special Steel or Aluminum cylinder with a predetermined expansion rate, which is calibrated by Galiso to be used to check the precision of the hydrostatic test system expansion readings.

Fill the Calibrated Cylinder with clean, filtered water and allow it to stand for at least three (3) hours before using to allow the temperature of the water in the cylinder to stabilize. Add water as needed to completely fill the cylinder before using. Teflon tape the stainless Steel adapter and securely tighten into the calibrated cylinder. Keep a copy of the Cylinder Calibration Certificate close to the system to be used during calibration of the test pressure and expansion readings.

The Calibrated Cylinder should be kept filled with water at all times. If the cylinder is emptied, it should be dried immediately to prevent corrosion. The Calibrated Cylinder should be protected from freezing temperatures. The force generated by the freezing water can permanently damage the calibration of the cylinder and possibly rupture the cylinder wall.