Asktog a quiz designed to give you fitts k gas station jobs

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If you are new to matters Fitts, take the quiz before looking at the text the follows anyway. The answers are going to thoroughly teach the principles involved, but taking your best shot at the quiz first will make clear to you what assumptions you have been using in the past. You can then measure those assumptions against the answers that follow. And don’t feel bad with your initial results: The overwhelming majority of people, even those that have been involved with computers for years, do poorly on their first time around. gas you up The good news is that they do great on the retake, and many have found this the most valuable single article on this website, immediately and permanently applicable to their future design work.

You may want to read through all the questions (but not the answers!) once just to get the "lay of the land." Then, go back and answer them. And you really do have to answer them. This is not a quiz that lends itself to looking at a question and saying, “Oh, yeah, sure. I know that one,” and scanning on down. You have to actually articulate the answer. (Otherwise, you are considered to have gotten it wrong.)

• You have a palette of tools in a graphics application that consists of a matrix of 16×16-pixel icons laid out as a 2×8 array that lies along the left-hand edge of the screen. Without moving the array from the left-hand side of the screen or changing the size of the icons, what steps can you take to decrease the time necessary to access the average tool?

What has happened at Apple is a little more mysterious. The industrial-design blunders are expected. electricity quotes by benjamin franklin Apple’s outside industrial designers have always hovered between cluelessness and hostility when it came to human factors. However, lately, Apple has been doing some pretty stupid stuff in-house, too. Like turning the rapid-access Labels menu into a hierarchical, slowing it down by five or ten times.

When the icons are spread apart, users have a "buffer zone" between icons, where an incorrect acquisition will result in no action. When the targets are crowded together, however, the user has more chance to initiate an unwanted action. To avoid this possibility, non-label users learn to slow way down. (Don’t bother to ask them whether they’ve slowed down. They’ll tell you it sped them up. Only the stopwatch knows for sure.)

You have a palette of tools in a graphics application that consists of a matrix of 16×16-pixel icons laid out as a 2×8 array that lies along the left-hand edge of the screen. Without moving the array from the left-hand side of the screen or changing the size of the icons, what steps can you take to decrease the time necessary to access the average tool?

Now consider the screen edge. How deep is the target? If it were really only the one pixel it appears, it would be very hard to hit. However, the screen edge is, for all practical purposes, infinitely deep. It doesn’t matter how fast that mouse is going when it hits the screen edge, that pointer absolutely will not overshoot. Having to hit a pixel two pixels in from the screen edge takes much longer than hitting the edge itself. Use that edge. It is your friend.

A right-handed user is known to be within 10 pixels of the exact center of a large, 1600 X 1200 screen. You will place a single-pixel target on the screen that the user must stop upon and point to exactly. electricity 24 hours List the five pixel locations on the screen that the user can access fastest. For extra credit, list them in order from fastest to slowest access.

The other four pixels are located, on average, as far away from the mouse pointer as you can get. Their distance, however, is more than made up for by their target size, which is infinite in two dimensions. These magic pixels are the four corners of the screen. Throw the mouse in any direction you desire and the odds are overwhelming that if you threw it with enough velocity, it will end up in one of those four corners. This presupposes a properly designed acceleration function for the mouse.

Phalanxes of lawyers have discussed point 1. Let’s deal with point two. The Apple menu bar is a lot faster than menu bars in windows. b games 2 Why? Because, since the menu bar lies on a screen edge, it has an infinite height. As a result, Mac users can just throw their mice toward the top of the screen with the assurance that it will never penetrate and disappear.

I then gave users the task of repeatedly accessing menu bar items. When they first started out, they penetrated into the upper screen by around nine inches on average, just because their mouse velocity was so high. Then they learned they had to slow down and really aim for the menu. By the time they adjusted, their menu-access times became so ponderously slow, they took around the same time as the average Windows user.

The other "advantage" usually ascribed to a menu bar at the top of each window is that users always know where to look for the items pertaining to the task they are carrying out. This is silly. Users may do various tasks within a given window, and the menu items may change. electricity prices by state Not only that, but a great many perverse applications exist, particularly in the Sun world, where the menu bar you need to access is not even in the window in which you are working! That is truly bizarre and mind-bending.

Microsoft applications are beginning to offer the possibility, in full-screen mode, of a menu bar at the top of the display. Try this out in Word or Excel. It is much faster. Microsoft’s general cluelessness has never been so amply displayed, however, as it is in Microsoft Visual Studio, which has a menu bar at the top of the screen with a one-pixel barrier between the screentop and the menu. Talk about snatching defeat from the jaws of victory.

The engineer who originally designed hierarchicals apparently had his forearm mounted on a track so that he could move it perfectly in a horizontal direction without any vertical component. Most of us, however, have our forarms mounted on a pivot we like to call our elbow. That means that moving our hand describes an arc, rather than a straight line. Demanding that pivoted people move a mouse pointer along in a straight line horizontally is just wrong. We are naturally going to slip downward even as we try to slide sideways. grade 9 electricity worksheets When we are not allowed to slip downward, the menu we’re after is going to slam shut just before we get there.

The Windows folks tried to overcome the pivot problem with a hack: If they see the user move down into range of the next item on the primary menu, they don’t instantly close the second-level menu. Instead, they leave it open for around a half second, so, if users are really quick, they can be inaccurate but still get into the second-level menu before it slams shut. Unfortunately, people’s reactions to heightened chance of error is to slow down, rather than speed up, a well-established phenomenon. Therefore, few users will ever figure out that moving faster could solve their problem. Microsoft’s solution is exactly wrong.

When I specified the Mac hierarchical menu algorthm in the mid-’80s, I called for a buffer zone shaped like a <, so that users could make an increasingly-greater error as they neared the hierarchical without fear of jumping to an unwanted menu. As long as the user’s pointer was moving a few pixels over for every one down, on average, the menu stayed open, no matter how slow they moved. (Cancelling was still really easy; just deliberately move up or down.) Apple hierarchicals were still less efficient than single level menus, because of the added target, but at least they were less challenging than the average video game.

With my hierarchicals on the pre-OSX Macs, in most cases, the user did not even have to think about targetting the second-level menu. The menu opened, and the user simply aimed for the desired item. The only time the user had to consider the second-level menu separately was when there were so many items in the menu that the one the user was after was way up or way down the list, out of range of the allowable pivot for entry. gas dryer vs electric dryer Even then, users would typically arc along a more radical curve to reach their items in a single motion, rather than breaking things down into the jerky Etch-A-Sketch types of moves users typically make with today’s hierarchicals.

They have a second advantage of feeding not only distance, but direction information into your motor memory. As long as the options are few enough, you will soon learn to move your mouse up and to the left to print, down and to the right to fax, etc. In fact, once these simple gestures are learned, you needn’t even display the menu anymore, unless the user hesitates long enough to indicate they may be unsure. (This was borne out during the course of the Fabrik project at Apple in the late 1980s.)

You can "Fittsize" them by making those items farther away from the mouse pointer larger. They need not literally be larger, since the user is not having any trouble seeing the farther items. Instead, the mapping of mouse-to-screen could be such that, as the user pulls further down the menu, more movement of the mouse is necessary to get a corresponding movement of the pointer. In effect, you are decoupling the behavioral map of the screen from the visual map.

Other decoupling tricks include setting up local gravity, so that once a mouse pointer gets near the target, it is drawn to the target. Barriers can be erected, so that once the mouse enters an object, it is difficult for it to pass through to the other side. This can be frustrating. Having a pressure-sensitive mouse that could "push through" if pushed down upon would enable the user either to be caught by the object or to flee to the territory beyond.

The farther away the target is, the larger it must be to retain access speed. Not only did the industrial designers reduce the total size of the target, they reduced it in the very dimension that was most critical. Stupid, stupid, stupid. What they should have done was to curve the keyboard sharply upward toward the back end, so that merely lifting the finger a few degrees would access the numeric and function keys, aiding both precision and speed.

You now know that it’s Fitts’ law. And you can use it in everyday design, whether you are building a new OS or laying out a new web page. When that default OK button, with only two characters, ends up really small, consider packing a few spaces in on either side to fill it out. If you have real control over your environment and are laying out a palette, make sure the user can access the tools by pinning against the screen edge. If you have menu bars at the top of the screen, use them! They are far more compact than a bunch of icons or buttons and, if you user-test, you will see they are faster. And if you work at Microsoft or Apple, consider listening to the people that have a clue when it comes to interaction design. electricity cost per watt They do exist. I’ve talked with them before. You might try talking with them, too.