At not ambitious enough with electric buses – greater auckland t gas terengganu

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If Auckland Transport’s Low Emission Bus Roadmap is adopted by its board next week, all new buses in Auckland from 2025 onward and all buses by 2040 will need to have zero emissions. static electricity images They also are targeting to have the City Link as the first route fully electric and are targeting that for November 2020 when a new contract for it commences.

The moves are part of AT’s response to Mayor Phil Goff signing the C40 Fossil-Fuel-Free Streets Declaration that commits Auckland to buying only zero emission buses from 2025 and ensuring a major area of the city is zero emission by 2030. Achieving these goals isn’t a straightforward task but even so I can’t help but wonder if AT couldn’t do more to achieve it even earlier.

Auckland currently has about 1,300 buses and the fleet has been increasing by about 5% per year – although much of that growth has come in the last few years associated with new contracts as part of the roll out of the new network. As part of those new contracts, AT require the average age of buses in an operators fleet to be no more than 10 years with no individual buses over 20 years old. The age and emission standard of the current fleet is shown below and in total 477 are over 10 years old.

Currently, transport makes up 34.8% of the greenhouse gas emissions in Auckland with cars being the biggest slice at of that representing 24.9%. But “diesel vehicles are estimated to be responsible for 81% of all vehicle-related air pollution health costs, with the annual health costs estimated at $466 million”. gas finder map The image below shows the city centre with many locations exceeding

You may recall back in April when Auckland Transport launched two electric buses to trial on the City Link service. AT say each bus and charger cost $840,000. In my opinion, these buses offer a significantly better experience to other buses in Auckland, both for bus passengers but also for pedestrians and cyclists thanks to having no emissions and being significantly quieter. electricity merit badge worksheet answers The roadmap lays out the early operating costs results they’ve and they’re fantastic with costs just 25% of diesel buses.

AT, understandably, suggest that one of the biggest barriers to the adoption of e-buses is the capital cost of them. electricity bill saudi electricity company They say they paid $840,000 each for both of the bus and the chargers but also that they expect the prices to come down. The table below originally comes from Bloomberg and shows that by 2030, the capital cost of a new bus will be about the same as a diesel powered bus.

8 Rivers uses an Allam cycle to produce electricity by burning natural gas. The claimed efficiency is slightly higher than a typical combined cycle thermal plant. The key point of difference is that the emission stream is pure CO2 rather than the CO2 mixed with a lot of N2 which is the case for the combined cycle. The CO2 does not have to be separated from the N2 and so sequestration of the CO2 is lower cost (that is the claim).

What the government seems to have done is provide funds to a startup interested in promoting the Hazer process which involved production of hydrogen from natural gas using iron oxide as a low-cost catalyst. tropico 5 electricity It’s interesting in that the carbon from the methane reports as graphite. electricity bill cost Hazer are cagey about gaseous emissions and efficiency so I suspect that there are some skeletons in that closet.

At present 95% of the world’s hydrogen is produced from natural gas (and some coal) with the carbon content of the natural gas ending up in the atmosphere as CO2. Our energy minister has stated that we have an “abundance of renewable energy” and looks forward to a future in which NZ is exporting hydrogen from those sources so presumably electrolysis is the preferred route to the sunny uplands of exporting our electricity.

You’re absolutely correct, but AT can still strongly influence the purchase decision through PTOM. I don’t fully understand how PTOM operates either, but there’s clearly some ongoing flexibility in the contracts or AT would not be able to add or delete services during the contract. Any cost adjustments may be able to be finessed through the existing contracts. And if there is no such ability then I’d say they were terrible contracts and AT was negligent for signing them.

As for whether electric buses have an overall lower cost of ownership AND operation, I really don’t know – that’s precisely my point and the one over which the AT Board should be sending staff a “please clarify” message. Any which way, it won’t be AT that picks up the cost, it will be the taxpayer, ratepayer and passenger that does so. gas definition state of matter Whatever the price is, it’s not even optional – we MUST move away from fossil fuels today – even yesterday if possible. To delay the completion of the process until 2040 is in the realm of criminal negligence given the seriousness of the climate change predictions.

ProdCom told the Government to implement the multiple carrot and sticks approach with the “feebate” system on all imported vehicles based on their life time pollution profile. So those who import the vehicles that pollute the most pay the highest “fee” [the first stick] and those who import the ones that pollute the least [like electric buses] get the highest rebate [the carrot].

Once it does then suddenly the economics of those “expensive” electric buses will become massively changed, as they are now well subsidised on import by the [now made more expensive] imported diesel buses. And as new and second hand imports as they all come under the same scheme the second hand bus imports are also hit even harder as the fee to import them will be a much larger portion of their cost.

So the amount of “subsidy” money available will be determined by the mix of electric and diesel vehicles imported. As it moves to more low emission vehicles, the per-vehicle subsidy will as a direct result, drop [another carrot and stick] relative to the earlier periods of time, when the import mix had fewer no emission buses which received quite higher per-vehicle subsidies in return.

Of course if you don’t also implement emissions testing of existing buses [another stick] and other heavy bvehicles – to force them to remain compliant within their EURO class or be retired, then the bad bus and transport companies will just not buy any new buses or trucks of any kind and instead will keep the old polluters on the road for even longer which is the exact perverse outcome that is to be avoided.