Atmosphere – traveller electricity test physics

Few worlds will be found where a single chemical makes up the entire atmosphere. Most atmospheres have a complex gas mix which will include a variety of specific elements, some in great amounts, while others are barely detectable. Atmospheric mixes include active and inert gases. On Earth, oxygen (02) is active, but forms less than 25% of the total atmosphere around us. Three times as much is nitrogen (N2), plus a few trace elements such as argon. These inert gases are not usually required by animal at plant life, and take no part in the chemical reactions essential for life (except for nitrogen, a special case). They are, nonetheless, part of the atmosphere. In this AAB article, when we refer to a specific gas such as methane making up an atmosphere, we are referring to the active element, which may make up only a fraction of the total atmospheric mix. [2] World Atmosphere Classification Codes Table [ edit ]

As a generality, small worlds are unable to maintain a sufficient gravity to maintain an atmosphere and tend to have thinner or trace atmospheres while larger worlds grow increasingly dense. Corrosive and insidious worlds tend to be at extreme ends of the tolerable temperature spectrum.

Typically no survival gear required under many conditions. The world’s surface is ellipsoidal, not spherical. Because the atmosphere remains spherical, surface atmospheric pressure ranges from very high at the middle to very low at the ends. Breathable bands may exist at some point within the range of pressure.

Typically no survival gear required under some conditions. The Ellipsoid World is large and massive, with a thin atmosphere which settles to the lowest levels of the terrain. The atmosphere is unbreathable at most altitudes except the very low ones (…as in depressions or deep valleys).

The third digit in the UWP identifies the type of atmosphere that the world has. As a rule, only larger worlds have a gravitational field large enough to hold on to an atmosphere, but there certainly are exceptions. An atmosphere is essentially a layer of gas or gasses that cloak the surface of the planet and there are a number of reasons why a world may or may not be lucky enough to have one. As we have already mentioned, a big world has the muscle to keep its atmosphere and the bigger the world, in all likelihood the denser (or thicker) the atmosphere will be. Conversely, moons and small planets with relatively low surface gravities will generally have only trace atmospheres, if they have anything at all. [6]

Other factors also come into play. A world sitting close to the main star might have its atmosphere stripped away by the destructive energy of the star’s solar wind sweeping past. The only chance a planet has of retaining its layer of gasses in this situation, is if it also benefits from a molten core that is producing a protective magnetosphere. Compare the Earth, whose atmosphere is shielded by its magnetosphere, with Mars. The red planet has a trace or very thin atmosphere that was considerably thicker in ancient times, but as the planet cooled it first lost its magnetosphere and then its atmosphere. [7]

Yet there are exceptions; in the depths of the solar system, the moon Titan orbits the ringed planet Saturn. Titan is cold, far from the sun and seismically inactive. It has no magnetosphere and with a surface gravity of only 0.14 G should not be able to retain an atmosphere – yet it has a dense atmosphere that is 1.45 times thicker than that of Earth’s! Ganymede and Callisto, comparable-sized moons of Jupiter, are of a similar composition but do not have atmospheres. One theory suggests that Titan, being farther from the sun than the moons of Jupiter, was colder during its formation. Gasses were trapped in the ice at those low temperatures and later made their way into Titan’s atmosphere. [8] History & Background / Dossier [ edit ]

All industrial societies must gain an expanded understanding of atmospheres, air pressure, atmospheric constituents, gas behavior, industrial pollutants, and other factors in order to build a successful, modern interstellar starfaring society of TL:10-12 or greater. The UWP is one of the external expressions of those expectations about atmospheric understandings within Charted Space.