Austronesian comparative dictionary – languages t gas zone

bataŋ trunk, log; bar; stalk, stem; fungus on decaying wood that glows in the dark; main point, most important thing in the death ritual (= sacrificial offering of a carabao); corpse, victim (in battle, in encounters with wild animals, of fast-flowing rivers that drown people)

buaʔ the agricultural new year’s feast, ceremonies that are conducted before planting the rice, serving to secure blessings for mankind, and the animal and plant worlds; the ritual community of those persons who jointly celebrate the same buaʔ feast

layu wilted, withered; to wither something (as by placing it near a fire); a corpse of trifling importance, for which the minimal death ritual is performed; used euphemistically of a corpse that has been interred without first performing the death ritual

tulali bamboo flute with two small pipes that fit into two larger ones that are bound together; according to some the tulali is a short flute with four holes on the upper side that are played with the index and middle fingers, and two holes on the underside that are played with the thumbs

-an the -an suffix usually functions as the affix that focuses attention on the person or object or place toward which the action is directed or where the action is being carried out. Usually the actor focus counterpart of the -an suffix is -um-: b-um-ilí kamí sa kaniyá ‘we bought from her (actor focus construction)’, b-in-ilh-án namín siyá ‘we bought from her (locative focus construction) ( Ramos 1981:63)

bugá act of forcing out something from the mouth by sudden blow of air; bellowing or hissing snort (as steam forced out in spurts); game similar to the game of marbles but using seeds of the kalumbibít vine, commonly forced out of the player’s mouth by sudden blowing; medical treatment given by quack doctors in which some chewed substance is mixed with the saliva and strongly spat upon the ailing part of the patient’s body

ka-sáma companion; partner; associate; companion, as on a trip; person living with another in a house; anything included, attached, or enclosed with something; something mixed with another or others in a mixture; portion or part of something

káya ability; capability; power; competence; capacity; aptitude; facility, the power to do anything easily, quickly and smoothly; attainment; an accomplishment; special skill, power to do something easily; resources; skill in meeting difficulties, getting out of trouble; wherewithal; the means, supplies or money needed; power; ability to do or act

lipás lapsed (referring to a designated time); out of style or fashion (as clothes or some practice); old-fashioned; out of date; obsolete; antiquated; archaic; old; no longer potent (as drugs or the like); faded (as a scent or a color); stale (of food, wine, etc. that has lost its good taste

lúmot general term for all kinds of algae, edible or inedible, although the more common term for edible algae is gulaman; moss; very small, soft, green plant that grows close together like a carpet on the ground, on rocks, on trees, etc.; lichen

ma- prefix forming adjectives denoting (a) a certain quality, e.g. magandá ‘beautiful’, (b) having much of something, e.g. mabató ‘stony (full of stones)’; prefix to root word forming verbs denoting capability of doing something voluntarily or intentionally, e.g. makíʻa ‘to be able to see something’

má-kilala to know; to be acquainted with; to have knowledge of a person; to know someone; to be characterized; to be distinguished; to pick out or recognize someone or something from surroundings; to recognize; to know again; to discern; to know

ma-lakás strong; physically strong; having much force, power, etc.; powerful; tough, hardy; hard; boisterous; violent; wild; rugged, sturdy; potent, strong; forceful, vigorous; hearty, strong and well; loud, not quiet or soft; making a great sound

ma-sakít sore; painful; hurting; tender, sensitive (physically or morally); nasty, hurting; hurtful, hurting (morally); biting; bitter; sharp; cutting; mordant; acrimonious, sarcastic; incisive; cutting; sharp; penetrating; hard (as words); unpleasant to the feelings

pag- prefix forming verbal nouns: act of. 1. Followed by the simple root word if derived from an um verb, as um-alis ‘to depart’: pag-alis ‘departure’. 2. Followed by the root word with the first syllable reduplicated, if derived from a mag- verb, as mag-alis ‘to remove’, pag-a-alis ‘removal, act of removing’

pag-kilala acknowledgement; receiving, admitting, thanking, recognizing an obligation or debt, etc.; informing about the receipt of something; answering; identification; view; a way of looking at or considering a matter; opinion; recognition; recognizing

pag-suŋsóŋ going against the current or wind; old name for China; north of the monsoon (according to an old Chinese belief, Lusóng ( Luzón) refers to the island south of China, or “south of the monsoon”, the opposite of suŋsóŋ “north of the monsoon”

paláwan large plant with stout trunk, found in ravines along streams, but also cultivated for its edible corms or as ornamental plant; has big, hastate leaves, large, stout petioles, and large rootstocks which are edible: Cyrtosperma merkush Schott.

pitík a flick or toss with the finger and thumb; spark of fire or light; the sudden tensing, tautening, tightening or jerking of a rope, cord, rein, etc., or the flicking of a whip, rope, etc.; a carpenter’s line for marking; to flip; to toss or move by the snap of a finger and thumb

síloʔ loop; the shape of a curved string, ribbon or bent wire that crosses itself; noose; look with a slipknot that tightens as the string or rope is pulled; lariat, lasso; a long rope with a noose for catching horses, cattle, etc.; net; a trap or snare

sinták a game of toss and catch such as jackstones; pulling at or out with a jerk; the jerky, shaking motion in separating milled rice from the unmilled on a flat basket or sieve; a kind of fishing pole and line used especially by Visayan fishermen; pulsation of the heart

-um- verbal infix "used to express simple, single or general acts. (a) simple or single performance: bumása, to read; sumúlat, to write. (b) general acts, like the functions of nature and the natural acts of the human body: umulán, to rain; bumagyó, to storm; umáraw, (the sun) to shine; or tumiŋín, to look; sumakít, to become painful; tumakbó, to run; lumákad, to walk, to go." ( Panganiban 1966). "verbs like bumagyó, formed with bases that designate natural conditions (cf. bagyó ‘storm’), occur in topicless sentences … Many of the bases that occur in intransitive -um- verbs also occur as the bases of ma- adjectives and the verbs, which may be called -um- VERBS OF ‘BECOMING,’ denote the acquisition of the quality expressed by the adjective." (