Basic services electricity manipulation


Basic services such as electricity and energy, water and sanitation, refuse and waste removal are critical services to improve the lives of people. In South Africa government has committed to providing a basic amount of free water and electricity to poor people. Sanitation and waste removal will also be provided where it is possible. arkla gas pay bill What is in this guide?

One of the key features of a developmental state is to ensure that all citizens – especially the poor and other vulnerable groups – have access to basic services. The Constitution of the country places the responsibility on government to ensure that such services are progressively expanded to all, within the limits of available resources. Government policy on most of these issues is therefore to progressively move towards Universal Access. Basic services include:

1990 – 1994: The policy approach to basic services since 1994 has been that government funded the capital costs of new services infrastructure while the users covered operation and maintenance costs. Towards the end of the 1990s, it became clear that poverty, unemployment and the high running costs of many schemes meant that poorer people could not afford the charges and so this arrangement would not be adequate to ensure either sustainability of services or equity of access to services. A substantial and important part of the population was being denied access to basic services.

2000 – today: There is general agreement that due to their economic conditions, the poor majority cannot afford to pay the full price for essential municipal services. The adoption of the policy in 2000/1 to provide a basket of free basic services to all, linked to an indigent policy which targets the poorest sections of communities is an integral part of the programme to alleviate poverty among poor households. The basket of services includes solid waste, water, sanitation and electricity. Since the introduction of the policy by government in 2001, the emphasis has been on the provision of a basic amount of free water and electricity, though work has started over the last year or so on sanitation and solid waste.

The RDP (1994) identifies energy as a ‘basic need.’ It went further to state that “although Eskom has excess generating capacity, only 36% of South African households have access to electricity, leaving some three million households unelectrified. Furthermore, some 19 000 black schools (86% of schools) and around 4 000 clinics are currently without electricity. gaston y la agrupacion santa fe Little attention has been paid to utilizing sustainable energy sources…” (Section 2.7.1)

The apartheid government in the 60’s and 70’s implemented huge power station projects, leading to Eskom having excess capacity into the 90’s. South Africa, with its electricity generated from locally mined coal, continues to have amongst the lowest energy prices in the world. Energy supply to households in 1999 made up only 17% of total energy use, whereas industry used 40% and transport used 27%.

*Large numbers of people are dependant on paraffin for domestic use, with serious safety issues – such as the impact on health; accounting for 95 000 cases of poisoning amongst children and 50 000 burn cases and displacements and loss of property due to accidents linked to its use. The Paraffin Association has launched a public safety campaign around the use of paraffin.

Free basic electricity is the amount of electricity, which is deemed sufficient to provide basic electricity services to a poor household. This amount of energy will be sufficient to provide basic lighting, basic media access, basic water heating using a kettle and basic ironing in terms of grid electricity and basic lighting and basic media access for non-grid systems. The levels of service are 50kWh per household per month for a grid-based system for qualifying domestic consumers, and 50W per non-grid connected supply system for all households connected to the official non-grid systems.

Of all available non-grid systems, only Solar Home Systems that are currently installed as an alternative to grid electricity under the National Electrification Programme. Solar Home Systems (non-grid) are unique in the sense that they produce energy on site from sunrays. Most of the cost of Solar Home Systems goes towards maintenance and operation. A capped maintenance and operational cost of R48 per month will be made available to subsidize households connected to Solar Home Systems under the National Electricity Programme. Consumers will be expected to pay the balance between the subsidy and the prevailing tariffs. Other technologies are still being investigated. Criteria for other systems like mini-grids and hybrid systems will be developed as such systems are approved. What will be done with people who do not have the infrastructure to get the free basic electricity?

Presently the Department of Minerals and Energy is progressing with the electrification of households in un-electrified rural and urban areas in order to achieve the goal of Universal Access to electricity under the Integrated National Electrification Programme. The free basic electricity policy is intended for consumers who are already connected to electricity systems. It is worth noting that Value Added Tax (VAT) has been removed from paraffin to provide affordable alternative energy for poverty relief to un-electrified poor households. When is the free electricity going to be provided?

Local Government is responsible for the provision of basic services in its area of jurisdiction. Eskom is providing a service on behalf of Municipalities. Even in a case like this, Municipalities will still be responsible for funding the provision of free basic services. gas exchange in the lungs occurs in the Where Government grants are paid to municipalities, these must be paid to Eskom to cover the cost of providing free basic electricity to the targeted households. How will the service providers deal with non-payment of electricity by customers who consider themselves as poor, yet consuming more electricity?

Unless otherwise stated, the provision of free basic electricity should neither be an excuse for non-payment of previous debt, nor should it be an excuse for future debt accumulation. The FBE is about poverty alleviation not free electricity as it may be misunderstood. electricity distribution vs transmission Municipal terms and conditions regarding non-payment for services will not be affected by the provision of free basic service to the targeted households

Before 1994: There was no single national government department responsible for water supply and services, responsibility was divided amongst local governments in the previous four provinces and to ten nominally autonomous homelands, resulting in very different levels of service. Most of the then white local governments offered standards equal to those in industrialised countries. In the rural areas there were often no services, while in black urban areas the situation was mixed. Both urban and rural services for black people were often in a state of disrepair.

In 1994: About 15.2 million South Africans, (12 million who lived in rural areas) did not have inadequate access to safe water. The RDP committed Government to the short term aim of providing every citizen with adequate water. A national water (and sanitation) programme which aims to provide all households with a clean, safe water supply of 20 – 30 litres per capita per day was put in place. the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) was given the responsibility to ensure that all South Africans had equitable access to water supply and sanitation. The White paper on Community water supply and sanitation adopted in November 1994 provided the framework. The basic water supply was defined as 25 litres per person per day, within 200 metres of the home.

In 1996, as the capital works programme expanded rapidly, DWAF recognised that progress was constrained by a shortage of delivery capacity. It started four partnerships with private-sector consortia to undertake BoTT (Build, Operate, Train and Transfer) contracts in the four provinces (Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga and Limpopo) where the backlog of services was greatest. The aim was to speed up delivery by minimising bureaucracy, and by using the resources of the private sector to achieve the vision. These partnerships had mixed results.

1994 – 2004: During the first decade of freedom, new water services were constructed, giving access to clean water to 9 million people. gastroenterology In the absence of a local government planning framework in 1994, prioritization was done through the setting up of Water Project committees, later led by elected local government representatives. Some funds for stand-alone projects in small (less than 5,000 people) communities were channelled through the Mvula Trust, which had developed community management delivery models.

The above figures indicate that substantial progress has been made to implement the policy of free basic water. However, less than 50% of poor households, who are the main target of the policy, have been reached. Reasons for this include weak capacity of municipalities in poorer areas, weak financial base to support the policy and these are also often the areas where no water infrastructure exists as yet. It has also been noted that the policy does not cover large numbers of farm workers, who live on private land.

Provide some water services. For example, Johannesburg Water is a public water utility wholly owned by the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality. The direct involvement of privately owned companies in the operation of water services in South Africa has been limited (only five) to date. Section 21 companies provide water services (for example, the Midvaal Water Company). Two Long-term concessions have been contracted with private companies, namely the Dolphin Coast and Nelspruit concessions.

Government has set itself the target to eradicate the current backlog of between 5 & 6 million people without access to water by 2008. It further aims for the next ten years to ensure that all families have the convenience and dignity of having water in their own yard, with each household having its own toilet and, in time, hot and cold running water in the house.

In 1994 an estimated 21 million people did not have access to a basic level of sanitation. Today, there are still 18 million people (in 3 million households) who do not have access to basic sanitation at present. An estimated 15% of clinics and 11, 7% of schools are without sanitation. Many other schools use pit latrines that are inadequate, dirty and unsafe. This all adds up to a potential health time bomb. The government will therefore support communities and households in wiping out the sanitation backlog by 2010.

Sanitation means collecting and getting rid – in a hygienic manner – of waste, including human excreta, household waste water and rubbish. If this is not done, neighbourhoods become dirty and people get sick. electricity hair stand up Sanitation is vital for good health. In South Africa we already have 1, 5 million cases of diarrhoea (runny stomach) each year in children under 5, as well as outbreaks of cholera. Other health problems associated with poor sanitation include dysentery, typhoid, malaria, bilharzia, worm infestations, eye infections, skin diseases and increased infections in HIV positive people. Good sanitation leads to increased life expectancy.

The improvement of sanitation is everybody’s business. Role-players include communities and households (first and foremost); community-based contractors; local, provincial and national government; the private sector and NGOs. The Constitutional responsibilities for ensuring access to sanitation rest with government, local government must provide access to basic sanitation, and national and provincial government must support municipalities with legislation and other measures.

Local government planning takes place through the Integrated Development Plans (IDPs) – of which the Water Service Development Plans (WSDPs) are a component. To implement sanitation improvement programmes, local government must budget and source funding for this purpose. The funding arises from various sources, including revenue collection and provincial and national government. Local government must also plan and budget for the operation and maintenance of sanitation systems. gas prices going up or down It is also responsible for assisting households to provide their own sanitation and to build their own toilet facilities. Specific responsibilities include:

Custodian of the nation’s water and lead department in the sanitation sector. It develops sanitation standards, support provinces and municipalities in developing sanitation services, monitor outcomes, build capacity, provide financial support, undertake pilot projects in low cost sanitation and make sure that sanitation is implemented in a co-ordinated manner. DWAF supports local government to develop their Water Services Development Plans as part of their IDPs.