Bbc – culture – what a single sound says about you electricity vs gas heating costs

##########

Most rhotics require more effort to say than the average speech sound, and they’re among the last sounds children master… if they ever do. The tongue-tip trill is particularly difficult, so it’s no surprise that speakers might slip over to something slightly easier – economy of effort is an important factor in sound shifts, though we’re also willing to exert effort to make ourselves understood. But ease of saying e85 gas stations in iowa and hearing aren’t the main reasons for the difference between the ‘r’ sounds you hear as you travel through Europe. Fashion gas prices in texas and identity are.

Long ago, Latin speakers said ‘r’ with the tips of their tongues, just as most Italian speakers do now. For a long time, French speakers did too. But in Paris in the late 1600s, some of the smart set started saying a back-of-the-throat ‘r’ – what linguists call ‘uvular’ – perhaps to save effort, perhaps as a fashion. People such as the noted physician Nicolas Andry de Bois-Regard counselled everyone to use the sound, because many people had been converting ‘r’ to other sounds such as ‘l’ or ‘z’ or – gasp – dropping it altogether. And so the uvular ‘r’ started spreading gradually through France and the tongue-tip trill came to be seen as ‘vulgar’ or ‘provincial’.

And then it spread from there, city by city, among the fashionable set, into Germany and the Netherlands and up to Denmark table d gaskets… or so the old story goes. But it’s not quite that simple. There’s evidence that the back-of-the-throat ‘r’ had already shown up in some dialects of German by that time, and not even among the fashionable city set. Nonetheless electricity rates el paso, the main spread of the uvular ‘r’ through Germany and neighbouring countries did follow the fashionable city folks and travelling merchants. Berlin had it by 1700; it took hold in Copenhagen in the late 1700s and spread from there back through Denmark; it moved into southern Sweden by the late 1800s and stopped. It spread too into Norwegian around Bergen, which has a long history electricity and circuits class 6 of trade with Germany.

It also moved into the Netherlands, but in any given place in the Netherlands you can hear some speakers who say ‘r’ with the tongue tip, some who say it uvular, and some who say it mid-mouth like 1 unit electricity cost in andhra pradesh Americans, and what’s preferred by young women (who are typically the bellwethers of language change) varies from city to city. Next door in Belgium, though, Flemish (another name for Dutch) avoids the uvular ‘r’. It may have something to do with Belgium also having French speakers: your ‘r’ declares your language group.

Uvular ‘r’ also travelled west. Spanish resisted it (except for a few places), but it took Portuguese by storm. Portuguese, like Spanish, has two kinds of ‘r,’ a heavy gsa 2016 calendar one (as in carro) and a light one (as in caro). In the late 1800s, some influential speakers in Portugal’s larger cities started saying the heavy one like the French ‘r’; it may or may not have been by direct influence from France. Within a few decades it had taken over almost completely. It went to the next level in Brazil: depending on where you are and who you’re talking to, you might hear ‘r’ as something like a Dutch ‘ch,’ or a ‘h,’ or – in some contexts – no sound at all. So the Brazilian version of the heavy ‘r’ means that ‘carro’ sounds to us like ‘ca-hoo’, and ‘Rio’ sounds like ‘hee-oo.’

The ‘right’ sort of people? Well, the ‘upper-right’ sort of people, if you look at a map. R-dropping came to dominate the part of England roughly north and east gas engineer salary of the A5 motorway –plus London of course – excepting areas of Lancashire and Northumbria (and stopping at Scotland, where, as in Ireland, there is pride in not sounding English). The Irish don’t drop ‘r’; think of the word ‘Ireland’ – the English pronunciation sounds like ‘island’, whereas the gas in dogs causes Irish enunciate the ‘r’, so it sounds more like ‘oirrland’. And the Scots not only don’t drop it, they trill it, so ‘Fergus from Aberdeen’ really sounds like ‘Ferrgus from Aberrdeen.’

The southwest English ‘r’ is internationally associated with pirates, thanks to actor Robert Newton, a native of Dorset, who played Blackbeard and Long John Silver in Disney movies in the 1950s. He’s famous for s gashi ‘Arrrr, matey,’ but you’ll hear every ‘r in ‘There be treasure’ too. Then there is the farmer stereotype (‘Get orrf my land’.) Now the ‘r’-dropping is spreading into the southwest as well.

Americans have not been immune to trends, either. Rich and well-educated people in port cities – most notably Boston and New York – soon picked up the British ‘r’-dropping fashion. So did plantation owners in the South, and – from them – others in their area. Poorer people in the South who lived in the mountains away from the plantations did not. Their reward for keeping all their ‘r’s? Their accent is now – as in Brazil – stereotyped gas house eggs as ‘hillbilly.’ But don’t assume a strong mid-mouth ‘r’ always goes with rural; heavy use of the same sound is also a distinctive mark of the Beijing dialect of Mandarin.

The prestige of ‘r’-dropping lasted a long time in America, but it started slipping after the Civil War, and slid right downhill in the 20th Century. Nancy Elliott, of Southern Oregon University, studied the speech of leading electricity 101 powerpoint men and women in US films from 1932 through to 1980, and found a steady decline in the rate of ‘r’-dropping, even by the same actors: Fred Astaire went from 80% ‘r’-dropping in the 1930s to 28% in the 1970s; Myrna Loy, from 96% to 7%. At first, more ‘r’-dropping was associated with higher 9gag instagram logo social status and more polite speech; leading men dropped their ‘r’s more when talking to leading ladies and less when getting into fights, and richer people dropped their ‘r’s more than poorer ones. But by the 1960s the prestige associations had switched: a few rich people (villains, for example) still dropped their ‘r’s, but it was increasingly a mark of lower class.