Behind the scenery _ opinion _ missoula independent

America has spent the last year celebrating the centennial of the National Park Service. Electricity el paso apartments Given that the agency protects 85 million acres—3.6 percent of the United States—this is a birthday well worth celebrating.

But two other important birthdays recently passed almost unnoticed. Youtube gas pedal dance October marked the 40th anniversary of both the Federal Land Policy Management Act, or FLPMA (usually pronounced “flipma”), which covers Bureau of Land Management holdings, and the National Forest Management Act, which embraces our national forests. Wd gaster cosplay The combined acreage overseen by the two laws amounts to an astounding 20 percent of our 50 states.

Of course, the very notion of publicly managed lands, which are mostly concentrated in the West, has its adversaries. Electricity year 4 Most spectacularly, the Bundy clan occupied the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge in Oregon after decades of flouting the grazing regulations promulgated under FLPMA. E85 gas stations in ohio More quietly, but much more effectively, several Western states, led by Utah and the Koch Brothers’ American Legislative Exchange Council, aka ALEC, have sought to wrest control of public lands from the federal government.

Why have these two almost unknown laws inspired such resistance? Because each in its own way transformed federal lands into law-abiding areas that could be managed for the collective good.

The two laws have very different histories. Gasco abu dhabi address The National Forest Management Act emerged as a response to the clear-cutting and timber harvest controversies of the 1960s and ’70s. Mp electricity bill payment online indore To this day, people differ as to whether it provided a much-needed course correction for the Forest Service or, instead, instituted an unnecessary solution to a “nonexistent” problem. Gas oil ratio for weed eater What the law does, essentially, is require the agency to prepare management plans for every forest. Gas 0095 download It also places significant environmental constraints on the Forest Service and gives it a mandate to manage for wildlife diversity.

FLPMA was born after more study and less tumult, but it too requires the preparation of “resource management plans.” Basically, Congress asked itself a question: How should the two agencies implement their famously open-ended multiple-use mandates and balance resource use and environmental protection? The answer, lawmakers decided, is to figure out the details through planning and public involvement.

Perhaps that is why the two laws get such little love. Gas efficient cars under 10000 In celebrating the Park Service, politicians and pundits and Hollywood celebrities can quote scripture from John Muir, with references to mountain cathedrals and holy temples and “places to play in and pray in.” But laws governing national forests and BLM lands? How do you properly celebrate sustained yield calculations, timber suitability determinations, land withdrawal procedures and interdisciplinary planning?

But what these laws lack in sex appeal, they make up for in substance and implication. Nyc electricity cost per kwh Right now, for example, several national forests are revising their management plans using a “new” 2012 planning rule. Gas monkey cast It’s a potentially transformative rule, and one of the Obama administration’s underappreciated achievements. Gas laws worksheet answers and work The rule creates a process by which plans can be made more adaptive and better informed by science and meaningful public engagement.

There’s no doubt that planning carries serious baggage. Electricity towers health risks Plans are the platform for the politics, trade-offs and general messiness of multiple-use management. Wikipedia electricity consumption They are subject to congressional meddling and appropriations, not to mention public pressure and the biases of the agencies themselves.

But like it or not, planning is a legal requirement and a necessity, and it’s high time we accepted it. Electricity use in the us There are big issues coming up in forthcoming plans, and the stakes can’t get much higher. E85 gas stations in houston What, for example, will become of the Northwest Forest Plan and our nation’s last roadless areas? How much land will continue to be sacrificed to oil and gas development? How will sage grouse and grizzly bears and the hundreds of other less charismatic species that depend on federal lands be safeguarded?

There’s also the need to plan for climate change and protect our water supply while continuing to work with the remaining timber mills, public-land ranchers and many rural communities. Gas unlimited There are important questions involved, and the answers will soon be found in an environmental impact statement near you.

Challenges aside, the 40th anniversary of these laws provides an opportunity to recommit to the idea and national significance of all our public lands, not just the postcard-pretty crown jewels found in the park system. Electricity generation capacity Congress called for our federal lands to be managed in the national public interest, and for planning to be done in an informed and democratic fashion. Electricity sources usa It is up to us to make sure that the work reflects our values and goals for the West’s public lands.

Martin Nie is a contributor to Writers on the Range, the opinion service of High Country News ( hcn.org). La gasolina cancion He is the director of the Bolle Center for People and Forests in the College of Forestry and Conservation at the University of Montana.