Biological physics gas hydrates are used

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A two-compartment model of diffusion in white matter, which accounts for intra- and extra-axonal spaces, is associated with two plausible mathematical scenarios: either the intra-axonal axial diffusivity is higher than the extra-axonal (Branch 1), or the opposite (Branch 2). This duality calls for an independent validation of compartment axial diffusivities, to determine which of the two cases holds. The aim of the present study was to use an intracerebroventricular injection of a gadolinium-based contrast agent to selectively reduce the extracellular water signal in the rat brain, and compare diffusion metrics in the genu of the corpus callosum before and after gadolinium infusion. The diffusion metrics considered were diffusion and kurtosis tensor metrics, as well as compartment-specific estimates of the WMTI-Watson two-compartment model. A strong decrease in genu T1 and T2 relaxation times post-Gd was observed (p < 0.001), as well as an increase of 48% in radial kurtosis (p < 0.05), which implies that the relative fraction of extracellular water signal was selectively decreased. This was further supported by a significant increase in intra-axonal water fraction as estimated from the two-compartment model, for both branches (p < 0.01 for Branch 1, p < 0.05 for Branch 2). However, pre-Gd estimates of axon dispersion in Branch 1 agreed better with literature than those of Branch 2. Furthermore, comparison of post-Gd changes in diffusivity and dispersion between data and simulations further supported Branch 1 as the biologically plausible solution, i.e. the intra-axonal axial diffusivity is higher than the extra-axonal one. This result is fully consistent with other recent measurements of compartment axial diffusivities that used entirely different approaches, such as diffusion tensor encoding.

The locomotion of flagellated bacteria in viscous fluid provides the blueprint for a number of micro-scale engineering applications. The elasticities of both the hook protein (connecting cell body and flagellum) and the flagella themselves play a key role in determining the stability of locomotion. We use a coarse-grained discretization of elastic flagella connected to a rigid cell body to examine trajectories and flow fields for freely-swimming uni- and multiflagellar bacteria. For a uniflagellar swimmer, we indeed find that hook and/or flagellar buckling occurs above a critical flexibility relative to the torque exerted by the flagellar motor and map out the stability regime in parameter space. Addition of a second flagellum greatly expands the regime of stable locomotion. We also examine the impact of higher flagellar multiplicity on locomotion. Stable multiflagellar swimming is robust to random placement of flagella around the body. Swimming speed increases very weakly with number of flagella; a simple theory is developed that explains this observation. These results may provide insight on how swimmers move through complex environments and how to design microrobotic swimmers for specific applications.

The concept of autonomy is fundamental for understanding biological organization and the evolutionary transitions of living systems. Understanding how a system constitutes itself as an individual, cohesive, self-organized entity is a fundamental challenge for the understanding of life. However, it is generally a difficult task to determine whether the system or its environment has generated the correlations that allow an observer to trace the boundary of a living system as a coherent unit. Inspired by the framework of integrated information theory, we propose a measure of the level of integration of a system as the response of a system to partitions that introduce perturbations in the interaction between subsystems, without assuming the existence of a stationary distribution. With the goal of characterizing transitions in integrated information in the thermodynamic limit, we apply this measure to kinetic Ising models of infinite size using mean field techniques. Our findings suggest that, in order to preserve the integration of causal influences of a system as it grows in size, a living entity must be poised near critical points maximizing its sensitivity to perturbations in the interaction between subsystems. Moreover, we observe how such a measure is able to delimit an agent and its environment, being able to characterize simple instances of agent-environment asymmetries in which the agent has the ability to modulate its coupling with the environment.