Black pepper farming in nigeria – agriculture – nigeria electricity generation efficiency

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It is obtained from the perennial climbing vine, Piper nigrum which originated from the tropical forests of Western Ghats of South India. India accounts for 54% of the total area under pepper in the world but its share of production is only 26.6 %.It is a climbing evergreen plant and grows to a height of 10 m or more.

The piperine in black pepper enhances the bioavailability of various nutrients such as vitamins A and C, selenium, beta-carotene, and others, thereby improving your overall health. Bioavailability refers to the amount of a nutrient or supplement that is absorbed by the body.

Besides adding flavor to your food and promoting digestion, black pepper works as an appetite stimulant. Research has shown that black pepper helps improve the appetite through olfactory stimulation. This makes it an excellent, simple remedy for those with a poor appetite.

Black Pepper is a humid tropic plant, which requires adequate rainfall and humidity. It loves extremely humid climates where temperature ranges between 10° and 40°C. A well-distributed annual rainfall of 125-200 cm is considered ideal for black pepper cultivation.

Majority of the cultivated types of pepper are monoecious. Over 75 cultivars of pepper are being cultivated in India. Karimunda is the most popular of all the established cultivars of pepper among the growers of Kerala. The other important cultivars are Kottanadan, Narayakkodi, Aimpiriyan, Neelamundi, Kuthiravally, Balancotta, Kalluvally, Malligesara and Uddagare.

In commercial farming, black pepper is better propagated using cuttings raised mainly from the runner shoots. Cuttings from the lateral branches are seldom used, since in addition to reduction in the number of fruiting shoots, the vines raised from them are generally short lived and bushy in habit. However, rooted lateral branches are useful in raising pepper in pots.

The runner shoots are separated from the vine in February-March and after trimming the leaves, cuttings of 2 to 3 nodes each are planted either in nursery beds or polythene bags filled with fertile soil. Cuttings from middle 1/3 of the shoots are desirable as they are high yielding.

When pepper is grown as a mono crop, pits of 0.5 m cube are dug at a spacing of 2.5 x 2.5 m and Erythrina stem cuttings of 2m length or its two years old seedlings are planted on receipt of early rains. With the onset of regular rains, 2 or 3 rooted cuttings are planted around the base of the standard nearly 30 cm away.

Initially, the vines may be allowed to climb on a stick or pole about 2 m tall, which is tied to the trunk in a slanting position. After one year, when the vine has attained sufficient length it may be separated from the temporary stake and the lower leaves may be nipped off. A narrow trench of 15 cm deep and wide should be prepared from the base of the vine to the base of the tree trunk. The vine may be placed in the trench in such a way that the growing tips it tied to the trunk while the other parts of vine is covered with the soil. A small ridge is formed over the trench which should not be disturbed while doing intercultural operations to the palm.

During the second year, practically the same cultural practices are repeated. However, lopping of the standards should be done carefully from the fourth year onwards, not only to regulate the height of the standards, but also to shade the pepper vines optimally. Excessive shading during flowering and fruiting encourages pest infestation.

From the fourth year, usually two diggings are given one during May-June and the other towards the end of southwest monsoon in October-November. Growing cover crops like Calapogonium mucanoides, Mimosa invisa are also recommended under West Coast conditions.

Apply about 10 kg of well rotten cattle manure or compost is given in April-May. Fertilizers to supply 100g N, 40g P2O5 and 140g K2O per standard for vines of three years and above may be applied annually in two split doses in April-May and August-September.

During the first year of planting, 1/3 of the above dose and in the second year 2/3 of the above dose may be given. Manures are applied around the vines at a distance of 30 cm and forked into the soil. Lime may be applied at the rate of 500 g per standard during April in alternate years