Blood chemistry and fluid medical terminology la gas prices 2016

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H 2CO 3is the symbol for carbonic acid – a weak acid. HCO 3 – is bicarbonate – a weak base. H + is a hydrogen ion. The system is one of chemical equilibrium. Therefore, any disturbance in the H+ or CO 2 concentration in the blood will cause a net shift in the direction of the reactions to the left or to the right, depending upon the disturbance.

For example, an increase in the concentration of H+ will cause more H+ to bind more HCO 3-and thus more carbonic acid (H 2CO 3) to form. The breakdown of increased amounts of H 2CO 3 will in turn lead to increased CO 2 production. gas cap code When the reactants and the products reach new steady-state concentrations the rate of formation equals the rate of breakdown and no further net change in the concentrations on either side of the double arrows occurs. At this point the system has reestablished chemical equilibrium. A decrease in CO2 concentration will also drive the reactions to the left. An increase in CO2 concentration or a decrease in H+ will drive the reactions to the right until a new steady-state occurs.

On the other hand, bicarbonate (HCO 3-) is the form in which most of the carbon dioxide travels through blood and other body fluids . The reason is it is water-soluble and CO2 as a gas is not. gas 47 cents Movement of HCO 3- in and out of red blood cells does occur in the kidneys and lungs respectively, but not freely. The cost is active transport. The reabsorption of HCO 3 that occurs in the renal tubule also requires the use of energy. gas in babies how to get rid of it In the proximal tubule it also requires the action of CA in the tubular cells near the lumen. There, it catalyzes the formation of bicarbonate from a reaction between CO 2 and hydroxide ions (OH-). The latter form from the reaction: H 2O → H+ and OH-.

In the kidney it helps remove excess CO 2 that kidney and other cells produce during metabolism by speeding up the conversion of CO 2 + H 2O to H 2CO 3 which breaks up into HCO 3 + H+ . The net shift in the reaction is from left to right because of the CO 2 concentration gradient caused by the increased CO 2 production. As H 2CO 3 breaks apart into HCO 3 and H+ the H+ is secreted into the respective parts of the renal tubule and excreted in the urine. This prevents H+ concentration from increasing – the equivalent of keeping the pH from dropping.

In the lungs CA speeds up the reaction in the opposite direction from right to left. In doing so, it promotes the movement of CO 2 from blood into alveolar cells which expel it during expiration. electricity bill nye worksheet The predominant right to left direction of the bicarbonate buffer system chemical reaction in this setting is due to increased H+ generation from metabolism and the CO 2 concentration gradient between blood and alveoli. Exhalation of CO 2 is what maintains the latter gradient.

Comprehensive metabolic panel ( CMP blood test) – Is a group of blood tests which reflects the general state of metabolism and chemical balance of the body. Tests it includes are common electrolytes, markers of liver and kidney function, glucose and total cholesterol. Many laboratories will also calculate a GFR based on the creatinine, age, race and gender.

Metabolic acidosis – Is a disruption in the body’s balance between the amount of acid and base such that the pH is below normal. It might be the result of overproduction of acid by the body; the kidneys not removing enough of it; or excessive loss of sodium bicarbonate from diarrhea or through the kidneys, so there is not enough to neutralize the acid, even if there was not an overproduction of acid.

Tonicity – Is the effective osmolality of a solution. It differs from osmolality in that it is not just the concentration of solute particles in a solution. electricity 2pm mp3 It is the concentration of those that are capable of exerting osmotic pressure across a specified membrane. Thus, it is membrane specific. The two terms might be synonymous if none of the solutes in a solution cross a membrane separating it from another solution. But in humans this is not the case. Most of the solute in blood is salt (sodium and chloride ions) which cannot passively cross cell membranes. But a fraction of other particles can. Therefore they are not osmotically active (cause osmosis). In this case the concentration of the total number of particles in solution is slightly greater than those that can cause osmosis. Hence, the tonicity of such a solution is slightly less than the osmolality.

Observing the effect of saline (sodium chloride) – table salt in solution – on red blood cells highlights the differences in the terms. The result is based on the fact that sodium and chloride ions don’t passively cross the cell membrane of red blood cells. Therefore, when submerged in a salt solution of a different concentration than blood the flow of water across the cell membranes of the red blood cells is the primary means by which the salt concentration becomes equal within the cells and in the surrounding fluid. static electricity diagram In other words, osmosis occurs.

In the above test, there would be no flow of water across the cells’ membranes if the test solution is isotonic because there is no significant difference in the salt concentration and thus no need for a water shift. A hypotonic solution would cause water to flow from the solution into the cells. Depending on the amount of water that enters, cells might burst. A hypertonic solution on the other hand, would cause water to flow from the cells into the solution. This would cause the cells to shrink.