Boa constrictor – wikipedia m gastrocnemius medialis

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Depending on the subspecies, Boa constrictor can be found through South America north of 35°S ( Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil, Bolivia, Uruguay, and Argentina), and in the Lesser Antilles ( Dominica gaz 67 sprzedam and St. Lucia), and many other islands along the coasts of South America. An introduced population exists in extreme southern Florida, [16] and a small population on St. Croix in the US Virgin Islands now appears to be reproducing in the wild. [ citation needed]

B. constrictor flourishes in a wide variety of environmental conditions, from tropical rainforests to arid semidesert country. [17] However, it prefers to live in rainforest due to the humidity and temperature, natural cover from predators, and vast amount of potential prey. It is commonly found in or along rivers and streams, as it is a very capable swimmer. Boa constrictors also occupy the burrows of medium-sized mammals, where they can hide from potential predators. [7] Behavior [ edit ]

Prey includes a wide variety of small to medium-sized mammals and birds. [18] The bulk of their diet consists of rodents, but larger lizards and mammals as big as ocelots are also reported to have been consumed. [17] Young boa constrictors eat small mice, birds, bats, lizards, and amphibians. The size of the prey item increases as they get older and larger.

Boa constrictors are ambush predators, so often lie in wait for an appropriate prey to come along, when they attack. However, they have also been known to actively hunt, particularly in regions with a low concentration of suitable prey, and this behaviour generally occurs at night. The boa first strikes at the prey, grabbing it with its teeth; it then proceeds to constrict the prey until death before consuming it whole. Unconsciousness and death likely result from shutting off vital gas mask ark blood flow to the heart and brain, rather than suffocation as was previously believed; constriction can interfere with blood flow and overwhelm the prey’s usual blood pressure and circulation. [19] This would lead to unconsciousness and death very quickly. [19] Their teeth also help force the animal down the throat while muscles then move it toward the stomach. It takes the snake about 4–6 days to fully digest the food, depending on the size of the prey and the local temperature. After this, the snake may not eat for a week to several months, due to its slow metabolism. [20] Reproduction and development [ edit ]

Boa constrictors are viviparous, giving birth to live young. [21] They generally breed in the dry season—between April and August—and are polygynous, thus males may 9gag wiki mate with multiple females. [22] Half of all females breed in a given year, and a larger percentage of males actively attempt to locate a mate. [22] Due to their polygynous nature, many of these males will be unsuccessful. As such, female boas in inadequate physical condition are unlikely to attempt to mate, or to produce viable young if they do mate. [22] Reproduction in boas is almost exclusively sexual. In 2010 gas in oil car, a boa constrictor was shown to have reproduced asexually via parthenogenesis. [23] The Colombian Rainbow boa, Epicrates maurus was found to reproduce by facultative parthenogenesis resulting in production of WW female progeny. [24] The WW females were likely produced by terminal automixis (see Figure), a type of parthenogenesis in which two terminal haploid products of meiosis fuse to form a zygote, which then develops into a daughter progeny. This is only the third genetically confirmed case of consecutive virgin births of viable offspring from a single female within any vertebrate lineage. In 2017, Boa constrictors, along with Boa imperators and Burmese python, were found to contain a new set of sex determining chromosomes. [25] Males were discovered to contain a pair of XY sex determining chromosomes, while females have a XX pair eon replacement gas card. [25] This is the first time snakes were thought to contain male heterogamety, and since then has been found in Python regius as well. [26]

During the breeding season, the female boa emits pheromones from her cloaca to attract males, which may then wrestle to select one to breed with her. [14] During breeding, the male curls his tail around the female’s and the hemipenes (or, male reproductive organs) are inserted. Copulation can last from a few minutes to several hours, and may occur several times over a few-week period. [27] After this period, ovulation may not occur immediately, but the female can hold the sperm inside her for up to one year. [27] When the female ovulates, a midbody swell can be noticed that appears similar to the snake having eaten a large meal. [27] The female then sheds two to three weeks after ovulation, in what is known as a postovulation shed which lasts another 2–3 weeks, which is longer than a normal shed. [27] The gestation period, which is counted from the postovulation shed, is around 100–120 days. [27] The female then gives gas density units birth to young that average 15–20 in (38–51 cm) in length. [18] The litter size varies between females, but can be between 10 and 65 young, with an average of 25, although some of the young may be stillborn or unfertilized eggs known as slugs. The young are independent at birth and grow rapidly for the first few years, shedding regularly (once every one to two months). At 3–4 years, boa constrictors become sexually mature and reach the adult size of 6–10 feet (1.8–3.0 m), although they continue to grow at a slow rate for the rest of their lives. [28] At this point, they shed less frequently, about every 2–4 months. [29] Captivity [ edit ]

This species does well in captivity, usually becoming quite tame. It is a common sight in both zoos and private reptile collections. Though still exported from their native South America in significant numbers, they are widely bred in captivity. When kept in captivity, they are fed mice, rats, rabbits, chickens, and chicks depending on the size and age of the individual. Captive life expectancy is 20 to 30 years, with rare accounts over 40 years, [30] making them a long-term commitment as a pet. The greatest reliable age recorded for a boa constrictor in captivity is 40 years 3 months and 14 days. This boa constrictor was named Popeye and died in Philadelphia Zoo, Pennsylvania, on April 15, 1977. [31] Proper animal husbandry is the most significant factor in captive lifespan; this includes providing adequate space, correct temperatures and humidity, and suitable food items gas stoichiometry. [29]