Bolivia the next explosion after venezuela and nicaragua – center for security policy gas tax in texas


Some have argued that although Morales campaigned in favor of nationalizing industries such as oil and gas, his nationalization programs have in reality been limited to the renegotiation of energy contracts with foreign companies. Morales continues to maintain communication with private banks and other capitalistic elements. Likewise, he has also courted support from Wall Street.

The positive economic picture, unlike that of Venezuela, belies what is going on beneath the surface even if economic prosperity is likely to continue. To certain observers, Morales’s pro-Venezuelan, radical rhetoric is interpreted as merely a front. For example, two scholars from American University, Robert Albro and Michael McCarthy cited how indigenous populations have forced Morales to back off from building a highway through a national park occupied by indigenous communities. For them, this is a sign that Morales’s authoritarian approach is limited by the social and political reality of the country. Thus, they have summarized the Bolivian case as follows:

I would argue that sooner or later the situation will explode. gas vs electric stove top Let us take the example of Morales’s ally, Daniel Ortega of Nicaragua. President Daniel Ortega, like Morales, has maintained a pragmatic attitude towards the economy while reinforcing his authoritarian rule through electoral fraud and other mechanisms of illiberalism. The business class went along with Ortega’s authoritarian behavior out of self-interest.

However, as the people of Nicaragua rebelled against the government, Ortega responded with brutally repressive measures. This shocked the Nicaraguan business sector, which then felt threatened by Ortega’s authoritarianism. The Nicaraguan Chamber of Commerce (COSEP) organized a protest against the government and joined the strikes that protested Ortega’s repression. Those protests left hundreds of people dead due to the government’s response.

COSEP demanded the exit of Ortega and supported a dialogue that would have led to elections and an eventual transition. As a result, Ortega delivered a virulent and threatening speech against the entrepreneurs and accused them of promoting “economic terrorism.”Thus, the pragmatic consensus that existed between the government and this sector collapsed. electricity labs for middle school In the words of COSEP’s president“It is not the same to negotiate under autocratic conditions than to negotiate in a situation where the government conducts assassinations, repression and destruction.”

Indeed, in 2016, Bolivians rejected a public referendum on Morales’s indefinite re-election. Despite this result, a constitutional court, controlled by Morales, declared that the constitutional clause limiting presidents to two terms could be ignored. If there is any doubt that the Bolivian regime is substantially different than the Maduro or the Ortega regimes, Morales’s statement last year says it all. During a rally Morales pointed outthat “We aren’t renters. As social movements, we have come to the presidential palace to stay for all our lives.”

Protests in Bolivia ensued last February as it became clear that Morales’s decision was to reject the people’s will. Students joined the protests. A student was killed. gas pain To gain some popularity Morales ordered a series of economic populist measures to increase salaries in coordination with trade unions while ignoring the business sector, altogether. In August, Morales was forced to cut his speech short during an Independence Day celebration as protests turned stronger and stronger.

In a decision by The Hague this past October, Morales lost his bid to secure Bolivia’s access to the Pacific Ocean (Bolivia is landlocked). That represented a serious blow to the Bolivian government that has been pledging for years to win a legal battle against Chile over land access to the Pacific Ocean. The government sought to compensate for such a setback by again ordering to double workers’ year-end bonuses given “the economic growth of the country.”

Even the indigenous populations that form the main constituency that brought Morales to power suffered repression. electricity flow diagram Indeed, as we pointed out indigenous people protested the construction of a highway and eventually Morales ordered that construction be discontinued. Yet, some indigenous groups abandoned Morales. Morales resented the protests and proceeded to influence and divide indigenous groups to force their leadership to be loyal to Morales’ Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS) party. Indigenous leaders observed that“loyalty to Morales has become more important than the cause of helping indigenous populations”. Furthermore, an indigenous judge was removed from office by the Morales- controlled senate for opposing certain government initiatives.

The Bolivian judiciary is supposed to be independent but has been subjected to undue influence, particularly from the executive power. In addition, allegations of corruption abound. Judges were allegedly pressured to change verdicts or their rulings were driven by fear of becoming the target of government harassment. The political opposition is treated badly. It has been reportedthat Bolivian Police systematically torture prisoners

Therefore, it is reasonable to think that sooner or later riots in Bolivia will intensify, just like in Nicaragua, which the government will most likely repress with brutality. There is no doubt that as Morales operates on two tracks maintaining a radical ideology with an element of economic pragmatism, it will be his revolutionary ideology that will prevail.

It is difficult not to see that state-sponsored drug production and trafficking couldeasily develop into a major criminal, authoritarian enterprise that will be hard to stop. Currently, Colombia and Peru are the largest producers of coca but such cultivation is illegal. gas constant for helium With Morales’s legalization and expansion, Bolivia could well turn into a mega narco-state.

As former Bolivian Defense Minister and now director of the Interamerican Institute for Democracy, Carlos Sanchez Berzain has repeatedly reminded usthat most of the coca produced in Bolivia does not reach the legal market. This is why at the UN General Assembly in 2016, Morales made a call to dismantle the Drug Enforcement Administration and close the U.S. military bases in the region.