Breast cancer gas national average 2008

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Sister Study– The study recruited more than 50,000 sisters of women with breast cancer from the United States and Puerto Rico. This landmark observational study has looked at lifestyle, early life factors, and environmental exposures, as well as genetic and biological factors that may increase breast cancer risk.

Two Sister Study – An offshoot of the Sister Study, this study focuses on breast cancer in women younger than 50, who can have different breast cancer risk factors than older women. Approximately 1,300 women with young-onset breast cancer are participating, along with their sisters (from the Sister Study) and their parents.

• Risk factors for young-onset breast cancer may differ from older-onset breast cancer, but few studies have focused on genetic variants that might be uniquely related to young-onset disease. In a family-based genome-wide association study of young onset breast cancer, three novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (gene variants) were found to be associated with young onset disease. ( Abstract)

National Toxicology Program (NTP) – The NTP, an interagency program headquartered at NIEHS, is known for its expertise in conducting rodent studies that can be used to gain insights into the environmental origins of breast cancer and other diseases.

NTP researchers in the Reproductive Endocrinology Group are working to establish new methods to study mammary glands in rodent studies that can be consistently used and compared across labs. Several new findings (see abstracts below) may help researchers correctly identify abnormal growths and reduce false negative results. This will help scientists accurately identify environmental factors that lead to problems in mammary development or function. ( Abstract, Abstract, Abstract)

More information about how environmental factors such as chemical exposures, dietary intake, alcohol consumption, and pharmaceuticals may contribute to breast cancer susceptibility is available in a special issue of the journal Reproductive Toxicology.

Breast Cancer and the Environment Program (BCERP) – In BCERP, grant-funded researchers and community organizations work together to discover environmental factors that may contribute to breast cancer. They also share lessons learned about breast cancer prevention with the broader community. BCERP is jointly funded by NIEHS and the National Cancer Institute.

New BCERP projects are engaging racially and ethnically diverse communities because of poor breast cancer outcomes in African-American women. Additionally, BCERP is studying how environmental factors may affect intermediate risk factors for breast cancer, like increased breast density, that can precede disease.

• Exposures to common contaminants in the environment may change the timing of puberty. For example, girls exposed to high levels of triclosan, a chemical used in antimicrobial soaps and hand sanitizers, experienced early breast development. Girls exposed to high levels of benzophenone-3, found in some sunscreens, experienced later breast development. ( Abstract)

• Changes in gene regulation that are age-dependent were found to occur during mammary tissue development in animals. This may help to explain why environmental exposures during breast development can increase breast cancer risk. ( Abstract)

• The proteins produced by developing mammary tissue may change after exposure to three common pollutants in the environment – bisphenol A, mono-n-butyl phthalate, and polychlorinated biphenyl 153. This may alter cell biology in ways that contribute to breast cancer. ( Abstract)

IBCERCC is a congressionally mandated committee that was formed to examine the state of research on breast cancer and the environment in response to a 2008 law. NIEHS and the National Cancer Institute provided leadership for the committee, which included federal and non-federal representatives. In 2013, IBCERCC issued a comprehensive report to the secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that recommended prioritizing prevention to reduce breast cancer, intensifying the study of chemical and physical risk factors, transforming research to include collaborations across scientific disciplines and with community organizations, and communicating the science to the public. Further Reading Stories from the Environmental Factor (NIEHS Newsletter)

• Report on Carcinogens – The Report on Carcinogens (RoC) is a congressionally mandated, science-based, public health report that identifies agents, substances, mixtures, or exposures (collectively called "substances") in our environment that pose a hazard to people residing in the United States.