Breathing new life into hydroelectrics _ the engineer

This means the country’s increasing number of wind turbines, which provided 11 per cent of our electricity supply in 2015, are not always spinning at times of peak demand. Bp gas prices nj Conversely, the wind often blows at night, when demand is low.

This can make life very difficult for the National Grid, which has to ensure there is always sufficient electricity available to meet demand. Grade 6 electricity unit test Last year, for example, UK wind farms were paid £90m not to produce energy at times of low demand. Kd 7 electricity socks Dinorwig, the UK’s largest existing pumped hydro plant

Although the supporters of renewables counter that the difficulties of incorporating them onto the grid have been exaggerated, since wind speeds tend to vary across the country at any given time, thereby helping to balance out supply, the problem is likely to grow as their use increases.

To tackle this problem, two government-funded reports, both published in March, argue that electricity storage will need to play a significant role in the UK’s future energy mix.

The reports, by the National Infrastructure Commission and the Carbon Trust, both argue that energy storage could ease constraints on the grid by allowing excess electricity produced by generators to be siphoned off and used later when demand is higher. Electricity freedom system This could save the UK electricity system between £2.4bn and £7bn a year by 2030, depending on the regulatory framework in place.

The most mature of all the available energy-storage technologies is pumped hydro, in which low-cost electricity is used to pump water uphill to a reservoir at night, and the water is then allowed to flow back downhill during the day, to drive a turbine.

In order to utilise all or at least a significant portion of the available renewable energy, we will need a storage technology with a large capacity, according to Prof Ånund Killingtveit, department of hydraulic and environmental engineering at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.

“Storage is expensive, and [pumped hydro storage] is really the only technology that can supply large, grid-scale storage at a low cost,” he said.

What’s more, the technology can respond to demand in a matter of seconds, he said. Gas unlimited houston texas “With an ability to respond almost instantaneously to changes in demand or supply, pumped storage is an essential component in the electricity network.”

As a result, there is growing interest in increasing the UK’s pumped hydro storage capacity. K gas constant Scottish Power said recently that it could add 400MW of on-demand electricity to the UK market by building a new dam in front of the existing one at its Cruachan plant near Oban, if it can secure a guaranteed floor price for its use from the government.

Meanwhile, UK firm Quarry Battery is seeking planning approval to build a new 99.9MW pumped hydro energy storage facility at Glyn Rhonwy in Snowdonia in Wales.

The project would see two disused slate quarries converted into the upper and lower reservoirs of the pumped hydro plant, according to Dave Holmes, managing director of Quarry Battery.

The plant will be equipped with two reversible-speed Francis pump turbines, which will act as a pump in one direction, to push the water up the hill, and as a turbine in the other, to generate electricity.

But it will differ from the existing pumped hydro stations in the UK in its use of a variable-speed drive, said Holmes. Gas monkey live This should allow the plant to operate much more flexibly. 93 gas near me The ScottishPower Cruachan Hydroelectric Power Station on Loch Awe, near Dalmally, Scotland.

Variable-speed drives enable turbines to operate at peak efficiency over a larger portion of their operating band. Electricity vs gasoline They also allow a plant to quickly vary the amount of power it consumes in pumping mode, meaning it can be used to regulate the frequency of the grid by drawing off more or less electricity as required.

“This fast response can allow for compensation of power fluctuations and damping of power oscillations, and thereby improve the stability and frequency control of the power system,” said Killingtveit.

While the technology itself is not new – variable-speed pump turbines were developed and used in Japan in the 1990s – the age of many of the world’s pumped storage plants means it has yet to be applied in the UK.

For example, the UK’s largest existing pumped hydro station, 30-year-old Dinorwig in Snowdonia, has six single-speed turbines that can generate up to 288MW, said Holmes. 3 main gas laws However, the turbines cannot generate any less than 133MW, as operating at this level causes them to stall.

“With our scheme we will have a variable-speed drive, which enables us to go anywhere we like, from -100 to +100MW,” he said. Electricity how it works “This allows us to be much more flexible, to follow the load and to carry out frequency regulation more easily.”

This will be particularly important at the quarry storage facility, where the reservoirs are deeper than conventional pumped hydro sites, said Holmes. K electric company This means there is a considerable change in pressure between the start of the day, when the upper reservoir is full and the lower reservoir empty, and the end of the day when the reverse is true, he said.

To cope with this, Glyn Rhonwy will need a slightly over-sized turbine, with a wider operating range than conventional plants. Bad gas 6 weeks pregnant The variable-speed drive will help to manage this, said Holmes.

In a conventional, single-speed pump turbine, the magnetic fields of the stator and the rotor are coupled, and always rotate at the same speed.

The technology is more expensive and complex than traditional single-speed pump turbines, which operators will therefore need to take into account when weighing up the benefits of upgrading existing pumped hydro storage plants, or building new ones, according to Killingtveit.

But with the growth in the use of renewables, the greater flexibility that is offered by variable speed technology could allow pumped storage facilities to provide a larger, and far more lucrative, range of services to the grid.

“This can make life difficult for the National Grid, which has to ensure there is always sufficient electricity available to meet demand.” Life is never difficult for a private monopoly – it’s a breeze.

An annual profit of £2bn is seen as the minimum they ‘deserve’ to extract from the UK economy. C gastronomie traiteur avis NG spends a miserly 0.1% of revenue on R&D. Electricity water analogy animation They spend their ill-gotten cash on mergers and acquisitions. Gas cap light It’s what big corporations do. Gas key staking tool There’s no profit in serving the nation. 76 gas station jobs When I joined the industry in ’72 customer service was king and salaries reflected the contributions of all staff. Electricity song omd Frontline staff (like me) were paid a bonus on performance. Gas leak los angeles Managers were paid to perform.

“Storage is expensive, and pumped hydro storage is at present the only technology that can supply large, grid-scale storage at a low cost.” That’s why we needed innovative engineering, yesterday. Gas prices in texas 2015 I told NG about before-generator energy storage seven years ago, but they don’t do R&D.

“utilise all of the available renewable energy” means you never build the installed over-capacity of orthodox wind-power. Gas natural fenosa The capex saving is more than enough to build the BGES option, integrated into wave/wind and tidal harvest. M gasol BGES means that nameplate capacity = storage capacity. Gas hydrates are used It sets new paradigms in marine renewables and energy storage design, which would make a world of difference to the cost of network operations, and our bills.

My experience of contributing radical new design proposals to the National Grid’s ‘Operating2020’ consultation revealed why they put no investment into UK innovation. Gas prices going up to 5 dollars The main reference in 2009 was a report by Pöyry Energy Consulting – ‘Impact of Intermittency’

“One respondent argued strongly that storage could be integrated into intermittent generation installations thus eliminating a range of issues raised within the consultation document. Electricity lesson plans year 6 Another respondent wrote that investment would be stimulated if National Grid identified a requirement for storage.” Exactly so; when you design for BGES, intermittency is ELIMINATED.

So their incompetent conclusions were published in NG’s final report: ‘Operating the Electricity Transmission Networks in 2020 – Update June 2011’:-

2.46 There is considerable value in storage across the entire supply chain but perhaps insufficient for any discrete part. Electricity edison “National Grid believes that suitable (taxpayers?) funding streams for using innovative storage technologies should be established so that they are developed and supported in the intervening years in order that all stakeholders can consider how such technologies could be applied, making them viable in later years.”

2.47 Whilst NOT considered within this paper, National Grid believes that large scale hydro such as pumped storage could provide the necessary system level flexibility and make a significant contribution to the security of supply. Thitima electricity sound effect However it is difficult to identify how the economic investment would work within the current market framework

The “market framework” was and is ‘designed’ by ideologues in a vain (both senses of the word) attempt to prove that their neoliberal economic theory can be made to ‘work’. Electricity jokes riddles It has failed. Gas vs electric stove cost It will always fail. Eon gas card top up At best it just hikes prices to attract more investment.

NG is forbidden by UK privatisation law from owning or operating any generation asset, and under that law energy storage is defined as ‘generation’!!! Neoliberal economics will never work without a FREE market. Hp gas online booking hyderabad Corrupt laws are needed so that rigged markets can deliver the necessary corporate welfare to attract investment. Was electricity invented during the industrial revolution It all ramps up our bills.