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There are many options for cover crops on the farm. The first option is to use a species in the grass family (oats, barley, wheat, sorghum, etc). The second option gas prices is to use a broadleaf crop (field pea, clovers, turnip, other brassica species including camelina, and others) and the third option is to use a crop mixture using different species. The grasses are relatively inexpensive. The seed can be broadcast or drilled, The grass species take up nitrogen from the soil, promote mycorrhiza growth in the soil, and broadleaf herbicides can be used if necessary to control some weeds. The advantage of using a legume is that it can biologically fix Nitrogen. The legume biomass has about 4% Nitrogen. Not all of this Nitrogen is biologically fixed, as some is taken up from the electricity recruitment 2015 soil. For the best results field pea and other species with large seeds need to be planted with a drill or planter and not broadcasted. Other small seeded legumes and other crop species can be broadcasted and harrowed in. However using a seeder will give better results. A cocktail of different species is popular in certain areas of the state.

The benefit of cocktails is that they contain many different species and depending on the growing conditions the most adapted species will dominate in the mixture. Warm and cool season crops can be mixed as well as broadleaf and grass species. There is not one mixture that fits all conditions. Many different mixtures can work. It will depend on the main objective of the producer. If fixing nitrogen is important the mixture should be a mix of legumes with a small gas giants percentage of other crops. If for instance late fall grazing is an objective, possibly turnips and radishes could be a component of the mixture. The more diverse the mixture the more likely it is that some of the component species will do well during the season. The cost of course needs to be considered. Weed control before seeding of a cocktail is important. A great resource for North Dakota is the “ Cover Crop Chart” produced by the Northern Great Plains Research Laboratory ARS staff at Mandan.

Before using cover crops in the cropping system, it is important to decide what the purpose is of the cover crop, forage crop, or cover crop mixture. Using a mixture of cover crops may allow producers to meet several goals simultaneously. Cover crop mixtures add more diversity, compete better with weeds, optimize nutrient cycling, and use the available moisture in a more efficient manner. Mellowing the soil and/or adding organic matter are usually the primary goals of growing a cover crop. Use of soil moisture by a cover crop, during the period after the main crop has been 9game harvested, might be one of the objectives in a relatively wet year. However, in a dry year a cover crop may use soil moisture that otherwise possibly might be used by a crop during the next season.

In North Dakota spring wheat is seeded in the gas constant mmhg early spring and wheat is harvested at the end of July or early August. Winter wheat is typically harvested two weeks before spring wheat. The average first killing frost in the fall is around the 20 th of September in central North Dakota. This period of time between wheat harvest and the first killing frost can be used for additional forage or biomass production. The key is the availability of sufficient soil moisture and or precipitation. If a mixture of more cold tolerant species is included in the cover crop mixture, the growing window may be extended well into October. We compared three cover crop mixtures. In Fargo and Dickinson cover crops were seeded into fallow ground, to avoid volunteer wheat. In Fargo a wheat treatment was broadcasted to simulate volunteer grain. In Hettinger the cover crops were seeded into wheat stubble. The mixtures which included brassica species established well.

Near Fargo, mixture 3 was significantly better than mixture 1. The difference between the two mixtures in biomass yield is attributed to the presence of the brassica species (kale, turnip and radish). In Dickinson and Hettinger, mixture 2 (with the brassica youtube gas pedal dance species) was significantly better than mixture 1. The mixtures mentioned in this article (see Photo 1) are just examples to show that there are opportunities to capture sunlight in the fall and transform the energy into biomass. Radish and turnip have also performed well in other previous research. Many different mixtures of various species can be composed and this will most likely reduce the production risk. However, if there is not enough moisture to establish and sustain the cover crop, the biomass produced will be very low. In western North Dakota the risk of limited establishment tends to be due to the generally drier conditions (see low yield electricity 2pm levels at Dickinson and Hettinger). If seeded directly into wheat stubble, volunteer wheat may compete with the seeded cover crop and volunteer wheat plants may have to be controlled.

It will keep producers and others informed and prepared on how to effectively manage any problem. The newsletter is a weekly series of updates on crop, soil geothermal electricity how it works, insect, disease, horticultural and weed conditions. Each issue contains valuable information about insect and disease problems, pest alerts, integrated pest management strategies, pesticide updates, agronomy and fertility issues, horticulture problems, reports from the NDSU Plant Diagnostic Laboratory, important Extension meetings and a weather outlook. Local reports also are included on agronomic and pest issues, plus crop development from agronomists at the Research Extension Centers across the state.