Camponotus saundersi – wikipedia gas tax rates by state

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Camponotus saundersi’s two oversized, poison-filled mandibular glands run the entire length of its body from its head to its bulbous gaster at its posterior (back). If necessary, it may perform a final act of suicidal altruism by violently contracting its abdominal muscles to rupture its gaster at the intersegmental fold, which then bursts its mandibular glands and sprays a sticky secretion in all directions from the anterior region of its head.

Its defensive behaviours include self-destruction by autothysis, a term coined by Maschwitz and Maschwitz (1974). [3] Two oversized, poison-filled mandibular glands run the entire length of the ant’s body. When combat takes a turn for the worse, the worker ant violently contracts its abdominal muscles to rupture its gaster at the intersegmental fold, which also bursts the mandibular glands, thereby spraying a sticky secretion in all directions from the anterior region of its head. [4] [5] The glue, which also has corrosive properties and functions as a chemical irritant, can entangle and immobilize all nearby victims. [2] [6] [7]

Direct observation by Jones (2004) found that C. saundersi adhesive secretions range from bright white at the end of the wet season to cream or pale yellow in the dry season and start of the wet season. These variations in coloration represent a shift in internal pH, likely due to seasonal changes in diet. [1] Territorial defense [ edit ]

Autothysis in C. saundersi is common during territorial battles with other ant species or groups. Territorial weaver ants ( Oecophylla smaragdina) are known to stalk and attack C. saundersi for territory as well as for predation. [1] Self-sacrifice of C. saundersi workers is likely to help the colony as a whole by ensuring that the colony retains its foraging territory. [1] Therefore, such behavior would continue within a population given that the behavior was already genetically present within the majority of workers. Defense against predation [ edit ]

C. saundersi uses autothysis to defend against predation by other arboreal arthropods ( weaver ants, spiders), which are believed to be the main predatory threat to C. saundersi for two reasons: 1. Jones (2004) noted through direct observation that C. saundersi is "remarkably sensitive" to even slight leaf vibration. [1] 2. The inherent adhesive qualities of C. saundersi’s secretion are more effective in immobilizing the appendages of arthropods as opposed to those of vertebrates. [3]

The "toxic glue" of C. saundersi is predominately composed of polyacetates, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and alcohols. [1] [2] Branched-skeleton lactones and methylated isocoumarins produced in the hindgut function as trail pheromones, while straight-chain hydrocarbons and esters produced in the Dufour‘s glands act as alarm pheromones in C. saundersi and related species. [1] Jones, et al. (2004) identified the following chemicals within the secretion:

(6R)-(E)-2,6-Dimethyl-2-octen-1,8-dionic acid is an acyclic monoterpene previously undocumented in insects. However, the chemical is well known to be a urinary metabolite in mammals, with overproduction resulting in toxic acidosis in various species. [1] See also [ edit ]