Castor oil – wikipedia gas examples

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Use of castor oil as a laxative is attested to in the circa 1550 BC Ebers Papyrus, [10] and was in use for several centuries prior. [11] The United States Food and astrid y gaston lima reservations Drug Administration (FDA) has categorized castor oil as generally recognized as safe and effective (GRASE) for over-the-counter use as a laxative with its major site of action the small intestine where it is digested into ricinoleic acid. [12]

In naturopathy castor oil has been promoted as a treatment for a variety of human health conditions, [24] including cysts. [25] The claim has been made that applying it to the skin can help cure cancer. However, according to the American Cancer Society, available scientific evidence does not support claims that castor oil on the skin cures cancer or any other disease. [26] Skin and hair care [ edit ]

Castor oil has been used in cosmetic products included in creams and as a moisturizer. It also has been used to enhance hair conditioning in other products and for supposed anti- dandruff properties. [27] Castor oil is a widely popular carrier oil for beard care for the same reasons it is popular for hair. Using castor oil in a beard is ideal since it helps with anti-dandruff but as well as its high linoleic acid levels. This fatty acid restores dry follicles, adds shine and promotes follicle growth. [28] Coatings [ edit ]

Castor oil is used as a bio-based polyol in the polyurethane industry. The gas tax in ct average functionality (number of hydroxyl groups per triglyceride molecule) of castor oil is 2.7, so it is widely used as a rigid polyol and in coatings. [1] One particular use is in a polyurethane concrete where a Castor Oil emulsion is reacted with an isocyanate (usually polymeric MDI Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate) and a Cement and Construction aggregate. This is applied fairly thickly as a slurry which is self-levelling. This base is usually further coated with other systems to build a resilient floor [29] [30].

It is not a drying oil, meaning that it has a low reactivity with air compared to oils such as linseed oil and tung oil. Dehydration of castor oil yields linoleic acids, which do have drying properties [1]. In this process, the OH group on the ricinoleic acid along with a hydrogen from the next carbon atom are removed yielding a double bond which then has oxidative cross-linking properties yielding the drying oil.

Castor oil can be broken down into other chemical compounds that have numerous applications. [31] [32] [33] Transesterification followed by steam cracking gives undecylenic acid, a precursor to specialized polymer nylon 11, and heptanal, a component in fragrances. [34] Breakdown of castor oil in strong base gives 2-octanol, both a fragrance component and a specialized solvent, and the dicarboxylic acid sebacic acid. Hydrogenation of castor oil saturates the alkenes, giving a waxy lubricant. [1] . Castor oil may be epoxidized by reacting the OH groups with Epichlorohydrin to make the triglycidyl ether of castor oil which is useful in epoxy technology [35]. This is available commercially as Heloxy 505 from Hexion and others [36].

Vegetable oils like castor oil are typically unattractive alternatives to petroleum-derived lubricants because of their gas in babies treatment poor oxidative stability. [38] [39] Castor oil has better low-temperature viscosity properties and high-temperature lubrication than most vegetable oils, making it useful as a lubricant in jet, diesel, and racing engines. [40] The viscosity of castor oil at 10 °C is 2,420 centipoise. [41] However, castor oil tends to form gums in a short time, and therefore its usefulness is limited to engines that are regularly rebuilt, such as racing engines. The lubricant company Castrol took its name from castor oil.

Castor oil was the preferred lubricant for rotary engines, such as the Gnome engine after that engine’s widespread adoption for aviation in Europe in 1909. It was used almost universally in rotary engined Allied aircraft in World War I. Germany had to make do with inferior ersatz oil (a German term for alternative, substitute, replacement) for its rotary engines, which resulted in poor reliability. [43] [44] [45]

The methanol-fueled two-cycle glow plug engines used for aeromodelling, since their adoption by model airplane hobbyists in the 1940s, have used varying electricity projects for class 12 percentages of castor oil as a lubricant. It is highly resistant to degradation when the engine has its fuel-air mixture leaned for maximum engine speed. Gummy residues can still be a problem for aeromodelling powerplants lubricated with castor oil, however, usually requiring eventual replacement of ball bearings when the residue accumulates within the engine electricity flow chart’s bearing races. One British manufacturer of sleeve valved four-cycle model engines has stated the varnish created by using castor oil in small percentages can improve the pneumatic seal of the sleeve valve, improving such an engine’s performance over time.

The most famous use as punishment came in Fascist Italy under Benito Mussolini. It was a favorite tool used by the Blackshirts to intimidate and humiliate their opponents. [55] [56] [57] Political dissidents were force-fed large quantities of castor oil by Fascist squads. This technique was said to have been originated by Gabriele D’Annunzio or Italo Balbo. [58] Victims of this treatment did sometimes die, as the dehydrating effects of the oil-induced diarrhea often complicated the recovery from the nightstick beating they also received along with the castor oil; however, even those victims who survived had to bear the humiliation of the laxative effects resulting from excessive consumption of the oil. [59] Inspired by the Italian Fascists, the Nazi SA used the torture method against German Jews shortly after the appointment of Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany in 1933. [60]

It is said that Mussolini’s power was backed by the gas jet size chart bludgeon and castor oil. [59] In lesser quantities, castor oil was also used as an instrument of intimidation, for example, to discourage civilians or soldiers who would call in sick either in the factory or in the military. It took decades after Mussolini’s death before the myth of castor oil as a panacea for a wide range of diseases and medical conditions was totally demystified, as it was also widely administered to pregnant women and elderly or mentally ill patients in hospitals in the false belief it had no negative side effects.

Today, the Italian terms manganello and olio di ricino, even used separately, still carry strong political connotations (especially the latter). These words are still used to satirize patronizing politicians, or the authors of disliked legislation. They should be used with caution in common conversation. The terms Usare l’olio di ricino, (to use castor oil) and usare il manganello (to use the bludgeon) mean to coerce or abuse, and can be misunderstood in the absence of proper context.

The castor seed contains ricin, a toxic lectin. Heating during the oil extraction process denatures and deactivates the lectin. However, harvesting castor beans may not be without risk. [61] Allergenic compounds found on the plant surface can cause permanent nerve damage, making the harvest of castor beans a human health risk. India, Brazil and China are the static electricity review worksheet major crop producers and the workers suffer harmful side effects from working with these plants. [62] These health issues, in addition to concerns about the toxic byproduct (ricin) from castor oil production, have encouraged the quest for alternative sources for hydroxy fatty acids. [63] [64] Alternatively, some researchers are trying to genetically modify the castor plant to prevent the synthesis of ricin. [65]