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Mercury Cleaners operated as a dry cleaner from 1947 to 2014. The facility used a variety of dry cleaning solvents, and the site requires soil and groundwater treatment to remediate the impacts of petroleum-based Stoddard Solvent and of PCE and its daughter products. Cleanup began in 2015 with a soil vapor extraction (SVE) system pilot test, which is currently operating. To address soil contaminated with PCE above residential screening levels in an area ~40 ft by 40 ft in plan, a source area removal action was implemented in November 2016 using in situ electrical resistance heating (ERH) thermal desorption. Comprising 15 electrode/vapor recovery wells located within the source area, the ERH system was designed to volatize VOCs in the subsurface for SVE system removal and treatment. The goal of the removal action was to reduce contaminant mass by > 99% and lower concentrations of TPH, PCE, and other VOCs below the soil and groundwater cleanup goals. ERH system operation ended on July 7, 2017. Although source area cleanup goals were not met completely, significant PCE mass was removed from the source area.

A rapid assessment (RA) protocol was developed in this project to assess the potential effectiveness of in situ treatment by chemical oxidation or bioaugmentation. The RA protocol is intended to assess chlorinated ethene rebound, the potential of naturally occurring dechlorination reactions in low permeability zones, and remedial effectiveness using a pair of closely spaced bedrock wells. The RA technique involves identifying hydraulically conductive fracture zones, flushing contaminant from the fracture zones using water, and then evaluating contaminant rebound within this zone while hydraulically isolating the zone from the surrounding contaminated aquifer. The rate, composition, and isotopic signature of contaminant rebound is then used to evaluate the limits of remedial effectiveness, identify the local source/cause of any observed rebound, and improve the site conceptual model. Work was performed at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in Trenton, New Jersey, as a preliminary test site to develop the methodology. The former Naval Construction Battalion Center (NCBC) Davisville (Calf Pasture Point) in North Kingston, Rhode Island, was used for more quantitative purposes and evaluation of the RA testing protocol during rapid flushing of a TCE-contaminated zone using water spiked with bromide tracer. Results from the second site are the focus of this report.

Bay Road Holdings LLC (formerly Romic Environmental Technologies Corp.) is a closed hazardous waste management facility located in East Palo Alto, Calif., near the San Francisco Bay. The facility ceased operations in 2007, and all surface structures were demolished in 2009. Historical facility operations from 1964 to 2007 included solvent recycling, fuel blending, wastewater treatment, and hazardous waste storage and treatment, resulting in releases that contaminated the soil and groundwater beneath the site. Biological treatment was the primary remedy selected by EPA to address the solvent-contaminated soil and groundwater. The biological treatment approach introduces a substrate (cheese whey and molasses were used in early testing) through horizontal injection wells (>200 ft long) for distribution via an in situ delivery (ISD™) groundwater recirculation system. The horizontal injection wells and the biological treatment system can operate independently and thus not interfere with the redevelopment ongoing at the surface. See details of this system in the ISD™ Groundwater Recirculation Pilot System Installation Work Plan at

Coal combustion is one of the largest contemporary sources of anthropogenic mercury (Hg). It releases geologically sequestered Hg to the atmosphere, and fly ash can contaminate terrestrial and aquatic systems. Coal combustion released an estimated cumulative total of 38.0 (14.8-98.9, 80% C.I.) Gg (gigagrams, 10 9 g or a thousand tonnes) of Hg to air, land, and water up to the year 2010, most of which (97%) occurred after 1850. The rate of release has grown by two orders of magnitude, from 0.01 Gg/yr in 1850 to 1 Gg/yr in 2010. Geographically, Asia and Europe each account for 32% of cumulative Hg releases and an additional 18% is from North America. About 26.3 (10.2-68.3) Gg or 71% of the total was emitted directly to the atmosphere, mostly from the industrial (45%) and power generation (36%) sectors, while the remainder was disposed of to land and water bodies. While Europe and North America were the major contributing regions until 1950, Asia has surpassed both in recent decades. By 2010, Asia was responsible for 69% of the total releases of Hg from coal combustion to the environment. Control technologies installed on major emitting sources capture mainly particulate and divalent Hg; hence, the fraction of elemental Hg in emissions from coal combustion has increased over time from 0.46 in 1850 to 0.61 in 2010. About 11.8 Gg of Hg or 31% of the total has been transferred to land and water bodies through disposal or utilization of Hg-containing combustion waste and collected fly ash/flue-gas desulfurization sludge; ~8.8 Gg of this Hg has simply been discarded to waste piles or ash ponds or rivers.

The NAPL Area is defined as the portion of the River Raisin AOC that contains an apparent NAPL substance and concentrations of PCBs >50 ppm. Remediation activities performed in 2016-2017 within the NAPL Area consisted of dredging sediment containing PCBs to specified depths, followed by placement of cover material in the nearshore area or an engineered cap in other dredged areas. To sequester PCBs remaining in deeper subgrade materials in the NAPL Area, two types of multi-layered engineered caps (A and B) were placed on the post-dredge surface within the navigation channel and transition areas. The difference between Cap A and Cap B was the size of armor stone needed to protect the chemical containment layer. The cap profile consisted of a chemical layer (sand/organoclay mixture) to contain potential PCB transport from underlying materials, overlain by a gravel filter layer, and followed by the armor stone layer. The single chemical containment layer, 12 in deep, comprised 3% minimum organoclay mixed with sand. Decontamination and demobilization of materials and equipment commenced upon completion of dredging and capping.