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If you’ve been programming in C# for a while, at some point you found yourself needing to call C libraries. It isn’t often, but when you have to do it, it’s like pulling teeth. One option is to set up a C++/CLI interface; the other is a p/invoke interface to a DLL containing the C code. grade 9 electricity unit It’s relatively easy to set up a p/invoke interface in your C# code for the C code, which you export with a DLL–if you only need to call a few C functions. But, if the API is large, you stare at the code for a while, deciding whether it is really worth writing out all the declarations you need to make the calls. Many people throw caution to the wind, write packages for large, popular C APIs so you don’t have to, which you can find on the Nuget website. One example is ManagedCuda, an API for CUDA programming from C#. Unfortunately, people get tired of trying to keep these packages up to date, and so these packages become obsolete. Another approach is through automatic means, whereby a tool reads the C++ headers (or DLL) and output the decls you call. A p/invoke generator reads C header files and outputs C# code with the p/invoke declarations that you can include in your code. These tools sometimes work, but often they don’t.

You may not care to know the details, but for my project Campy, which compiles C# code to parallelized GPU code, Mono Mini is highly relevant. Mono Mini has a simple parser of the CIL, and a translator to converted into LLVM. There are other libraries out there to compile CIL, like SharpLang and LLILC, but the source code for either are not easy readings.

The translation of pCIL to LLVM IR is in mini-llvm.c. The main loop for translation to LLVM IR is in process_bb(), , at “for (ins = bb->code; ins; ins = ins->next) {” . what is electricity In that for-loop, conversion is contingent on the op-code of the abstract CIL instruction, in the fat switch statement “switch (ins->opcode) {” . Conversion is performed per method, in mono_llvm_emit_method(). “Emit LLVM IL from the mono IL, and compile it to native code using LLVM.”. That calls a sequence of functions, eventually to process_bb(), which contains that fat switch statement. Like this: mini_method_compile -> mono_llvm_emit_method -> mono_method_inner() -> process_bb().

Today, I’m writing this note about backup procedures for Windows. Up to now, I’ve been backing up my Windows machines (operating currently five) in an ad hoc manner. Cringe you may, but I’d only made a backup once a month or so. Well, for the many decades I’ve been working with computers, I’ve never lost that much, through disk failures, unexpected file deletions, and upgrades. If a machine got trashed, I could mount the driver in another machine, boot a good OS, copy the files I’m interested in, and start afresh with a reformatted/reinstalled OS. But, my luck changed unexpectedly last week.

Microsoft says that Windows 10 provides a “backup” through “file history.” But this is NOT a backup. gas 0095 download A backup should include system files and partitions, not just your personal files. Windows 10 also provides the “Windows 7 backup”, but I really do not understand why it’s called that, and not “Windows 10 backup.” Is it going to be supported in the future? Maybe not!

An online backup is a good alternative. There are plenty of commercial products available, some of which were reviewed just a few days ago (,2817,2288745,00.asp). However, online backups have several problems: the services require a yearly subscription; there are limits on the size or duration of the backups saved; transferring data to and from the online service places demands on the internet link; online backup providers may not be reliable in the long run. Backup to a spare PC on a LAN

Because I have a spare box, several large disks installed in it, with the machine attached to a gigabit LAN, I went with Acronis True Image 2017 to the spare box. The cost of Acronis was $60, which isn’t too bad. On each machine, a script is run to wake up the spare server, run Acronis True Image, then shutdown the server at the end of the backup.

What is this Net Core everyone is talking about? Net Core is a cross-platform application framework for C#. electricity usage calculator With Visual Studio or the Net Core tool set, it’s not too hard to build server applications on any platform that can be deployed to any platform. This is remarkable considering the source code for C#/NET was proprietary code until Nov. 2014 when Net Core and parts of Net Framework were open sourced by Microsoft.

But, doesn’t Mono/Xamarin and Unity all offer a cross-platform application framework for C# as well?? While it’s true that Mono/Xamarin work cross platform, it was written from scratch. Mono was then extended to include bindings for Android, iOS, and other runtimes, and an API for UI common across selected platforms. Unity, as well, is a fork of Mono, with an API for graphics added. It too has differences with Net Framework that have emerged over time. It is expected that Net Standard, described below, will eventually supplant much of the functionality of these different cross-platform application frameworks.

Net Core has changed quite a bit in just the last few months let alone years. The file project.json, which specified the project dependencies, frameworks, targets, and runtimes, is now deprecated. Answers to questions about setting runtimes be found in, but are confusing since they refer to the old project.json file. First, a small side issue: WSL (Windows for Subsystem Linux)

It’s also now possible to run X Windows applications in WSL with an X server installed on your Windows 10 desktop ( See Instructions1 and Instructions2. Some useful X Windows programs would be XTerm ( sudo apt install xterm), gFTP ( sudo apt install gftp)–just the tip of an iceberg of wonderful software. Installing Net Core

Note, I’ve had problems getting the command line tool set working sometimes. This was because of multiple Net Core installations. Unfortunately, the newest Net Core package does not uninstall the older versions, at least on Windows. a gas has no volume Beyond that, there shouldn’t be anything more to do to install. It all should find the dotnet executable, whichever platform you use. Writing a Hello World program

The first line creates a “Hello World” program. This may take a while while. The second command line performs essentially a “NuGet”, downloading and installing any additional packages. The third command line compiles and runs the program. hp gas online Note, the product is a dotnet-dependent CIL/MSIL executable, and requires the “dotnet” executable to run, much like how Mono works.

Over the years, there have been many different implementations of the “NET Framework,” which resulted in different APIs. For example, in Mono/Xamarin/Unity, the Reflection API has several differences with the NET Framework Reflection API. Net Standard is a new base class layer that provides cross compatibility of different frameworks by providing a “shim” (or in my day, a “thunk”) that maps the functionality over the frameworks. The goal is to allow libraries written in one framework to be used in another framework.

Undoubtedly, you have probably seen the above figure showing the compatibility of the various NET Frameworks. But, this illustration simplifies what is actually required. To create a Net Standard library, you must compile for the appropriate Net Standard framework and provide a a list of dependencies for compatibility. See NetStandardLib and NetFrameworkApp in the example I provide.

It is possible to compile your library to Net Framework, Xamarin, etc. while forcing your code to be Net Standard compliant by adding a tag to your .csproj file. For example, a netstandard1.4;net461 tag will generate a Net Standard and Net Framework targets for your library. You could use a higher version number for Net Standard, but you would have to provide an additional target ( ) in the CSPROJ file to target the PCL (e.g.,, which may lead to other problems.