Condition monitoring of equipment to improve quality of supply to customers by averting failures _ esi-africa. com

The quality of supply (reliability) of electricity supply to customers is measured in terms of the frequency and duration of interruptions. Gas national average 2013 The indices used for quantifying these are SAIFI (System Average Interruption Frequency Index) and SAIDI (System Average Interruption Duration Index) respectively. Nyc electricity consumption Interruption of supply to customers results in huge financial losses to the customers as well as the utilities and should therefore be minimised as much as possible. Gas engineer salary Many electricity distribution companies are currently regulated within an incentive (performance) based regulatory framework in which an agreed target value of performance indices are expected to be achieved: good performance (below the target SAIDI/ SAIFI values) is financially rewarded while poor performance (above the target SAIDI/SAIFI values) is financially penalised by the regulator(1).

Failure of power system equipment is responsible for a large proportion of power system outages and associated interruption of electricity supply to customers. Electricity billy elliot Other causes of interruption include vandalism and extreme weather conditions, among others. Gas number density The condition of a network is usually monitored using remote terminal unit (RTU) based SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition). E payment electricity bill bangalore More accurate real-time monitoring can be achieved using Phasor Measurement Units (PMU), and they can be used to detect looming contingencies(2).

Capital investment and adequate maintenance are necessary for a given level of reliability. Electricity worksheets high school To reduce the probability of equipment failure, preventive/scheduled maintenance is usually carried out. Wd gaster theory Reliability centred maintenance of power system components is necessary. Gas 93 If failures can be predicted before they occur, action can be taken to reduce the occurrence of unplanned outages of equipment thus contributing to meeting performance targets and reducing the cost of interruptions.

To this end condition monitoring of critical power system components such as transformers, circuit breakers and power lines is essential. Gas variables pogil key This becomes very necessary as the components age or get into the wear out period. Gasco abu dhabi To achieve the stated objective it is necessary to identify the causes of faults using failure modes effects and critical analysis (FMECA) and the parameters that can be used to determine incipient failure(3).

Several techniques are available for condition monitoring: some are traditional methods while there are newer knowledge-based methods, and they include online or offline monitoring. Arkansas gas prices Some methods used for monitoring the conditions of some critical components are described below. Gas 10 ethanol Transformers condition monitoring

The condition of a transformer is a function of the various stress factors it is exposed to. 1 unit electricity cost in kerala The four main stress factors are electrical, mechanical, environmental and thermal stresses. Electricity transmission Different conditions of a transformer can be monitored in order to predict its health. Electricity grid code Table 1 shows different indicators that can be identified by inspection while Figure 1 shows other parameters and analysis techniques. Electricity magnetism and electromagnetism The online tap changer is responsible for most of the faults in power transformers(3).

Geomagnetically induced current (GIC) is responsible for some faults in transformers, and research is ongoing on its monitoring and mitigation(4).

The circuit breaker is a critical component of the power system. Gas works park address Its mal operation usually results from hidden failures, which can either cause nuisance tripping – by tripping when it is not supposed to or failing to trip when expected to – thus making it necessary for a back-up protection to operate, and disconnecting more customers than the primary protection would have disconnected in the event of a fault.

Condition monitoring of circuit breakers is therefore important. Electricity vancouver wa A guide for the monitoring of circuit breakers(6) has been prepared by the IEEE/PES High Voltage Circuit Breaker Subcommittee Working Group on Quality and Reliability of Circuit Breakers. Extra strength gas x while pregnant Table 2 shows different switchgear health indicators that can be identified by inspection, while Figure 2 shows other parameters and analysis techniques. 9game Transmission line condition monitoring

Power line inspection is carried out to detect physical hardware fatigue noticeable by human eye and by taking HD photos of each overhead power line tower, the images are analysed to identify any suspicious components. J gastrointest oncol impact factor Infrared cameras are used to detect weak links and corona, which can also be detected using ultraviolet cameras.

Lidar scanner can be used to create 3D models of the lines from which all the distances can be measured. Electricity and magnetism lecture notes Foot patrol and helicopter inspection has been used by the South African electricity utility Eskom, to inspect overhead power lines. Electricity labs high school This inspection approach is however infrequent and expensive(7).

Robotics have been applied to power line inspection in recent times by grid owners to ensure the reliability and availability of the transmission lines(8). Electricity in indian villages Power line inspection robot projects have been embarked upon in a couple of South African universities to try to solve some identified problems associated with transmission line inspection in simpler, more cost effective ways(7,9). Gasco abu dhabi location Cable condition monitoring

Performance is not necessarily a function of the age of the components. Gas quality ‘If it were possible to identify high risk sections of circuits in advance and to replace just the few defective meters, just before failure occurs, the performance and costs of running the systems could be improved dramatically(10). Gas tax oregon To this end higher fault rate feeder circuits can be identified for monitoring.

Moisture ingress into cables as a result of sheath/joint water barrier failure, poor joints and voids in insulation are some of the causes of cable failure. Frictional electricity examples Monitoring of cable condition off-line can be done using the following techniques(8): Pressure testing AC/DC, Fall of potential testing, Tan δ testing and Zero sequence impedance testing. Electricity will not generally cause Partial discharges can be detected offline using Oscillating Wave, and resonant Partial Discharge Mapping (PDM) equipment and VLF (very lower frequency test) from 6.6kV to 132kV. Gas efficient cars under 5000 There is, however a limit to the application of offline monitoring since it entails switching the circuit off. Electricity storage handbook Some online monitoring methods such as the use of HF current sensors have been developed(10). Electricity deregulation choices and challenges Time domain reflectometry can also be used for fault detection in medium voltage XLPE cables. Electricity use estimator References

1. Arkansas gas and oil commission K. Electricity projects for grade 6 Alvehag and K. V lab electricity Awodele, “Impact of Reward and Penalty Scheme on the Incentives for Distribution System Reliability,” IEEE Transaction on Power Systems, vol. Us electricity hertz 29, no. Gas in chest 1, pp. Electricity word search printable 386 -394, 2014.

2. Electricity merit badge worksheet answers A. Electricity billy elliot chords Kahunzire and K. Electricity towers in japan O. Gas in back and stomach Awodele, “Improving Distribution networks State Estimation by means of Phasor Measurement Units,” in 47th International Universities’ Power Engineering Conference (UPEC), Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 2014.

4. Electricity prices per kwh 2013 D. Electricity games T. Grade 9 electricity unit test answers Oyedokun, M. Gaston yla agrupacion santa fe N. Tgas advisors company profile Simon and C. Electricity icons free T, Gaunt “Introduction of a More Detailed Calculation of Geomagnetically Induced Currents in Transmission Lines,” in Southern Africa Power Engineering Conference, Potchefstroom, 2013. Power outage houston today 5. Electricity voltage in germany M. Electricity worksheets ks1 Maziya and K. Electricity and circuits Awodele, “Lightning Overvoltage Protection and Network Performance of Distribution Transformers – Case Study: Swaziland Electricity Company,” in Southern Africa Power Engineering Conference, Vereeniging, 2016.

7. Electricity vs magnetism venn diagram T. Electricity 2pm lyrics C. Gas law questions and answers Visser and R. F gas regulations Gouws, “Transmission Line Monitoring System for a Power Line Robot,” in Southern African Universities Power Engineering Conference, Potchefstroom, 2013.

8. Z gas cd juarez telefono S. Astrid y gaston lima menu prices Montambault, N. Gas under a dollar Pouliot and R. Find a gas station near me Dansereau, “Robot is Applied to Power Line Inspection and Maintenance: Hydro Quebec’s Experience,” in CIGRE, Tabor, 2010.

9. Electricity number J. Electricity quiz 4th grade Patel and E. V gas llc Boje, “Brachiating Power Line Inspection Robot,” in International Conference on Applied Robotics for the Power Industry (CAPRI), Foz do Iguassu, 2014.

10. Gas finder near me C. Rahal e gas card M. Gas dryer vs electric dryer calculator Walton, “Detecting and Locating MV Failure Before It Occurs. Electricity production in usa Experience with Live Line Partial Discharge Detection on Underground Paper Insulated 11 kV Cables in London.,” in CIRED, Amsterdam 2001.

11. Gas variables pogil answers V. Gas x coupon 2014 Dubickas and H. Gas zyklon b Edin, “On-line Time Domain Reflectometry Measurements of Temperature Variations of an XLPE Power Cable,” in Annual Report Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, Kansas City,2006