Congo’s political crisis after 19 december _ african arguments

Hundreds have been arrested and more than 20 killed over the past few days in Congo’s major cities, including the capital Kinshasa. Electricity projects for grade 7 Credit: MONUSCO/Myriam Asmani.

The formal end of President Joseph Kabila’s rule on 19 December was long announced as a moment in which there could be outbreaks of large-scale violence. Gas nozzle stuck in car Yet on the day things remained relatively calm in most of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

This had much to do with the massive deployment of security forces, which had a dramatic intimidation effect on Congo’s population. World j gastrointestinal oncol impact factor Campaigners say over a hundred people were detained in the few days running up to the end of Kabila’s mandate, and that a hundred more have been arrested since.

Already in September 2016, tens of people were gunned down in the streets of Kinshasa during huge protests against Kabila’s attempts to extend his rule. 3 gases in the atmosphere That had acted as a clear warning by the regime that any future expressions of dissent would provoke a similar response – a threat that was borne out on 20 December when more than twenty protesters are reported to have been killed in confrontations with security forces in cities around the country.

Recent events, including several forms of resistance and confrontation in unexpected areas, give an indication of what might happen in the next few days and weeks. Electricity for refrigeration heating and air conditioning answer key Rather than expecting massive rallies in Congo’s major cities, it looks like we are moving towards other, less predictable and less controllable forms of protest.

Spontaneous demonstrations have erupted in unexpected parts of the country, bypassing the political opposition, which seems have become more and more irrelevant. V gashi kenga e zagrebit Different parts of the Congolese population have started refuting the legitimacy of the regime and its representatives. Grade 9 electricity quiz And some protests have shown themselves to be at risk of manipulation by all sorts of actors, potentially leading to a gradual politico-military disintegration that will be hard to manage.

At the same time, the Catholic bishops are continuing their efforts to bridge the gaps between the regime and all factions of the political opposition. Electricity terms and definitions After a four-day break and various earlier unsuccessful attempts, these talks − which are aimed at a reaching political agreement that involves an inclusive transition process towards elections − will resume this week.

However, the bishops’ efforts are already weakened − if not entirely obstructed − by the appointment of new Prime Minister Samy Badibanga’s government just minutes before midnight on 19 December. Electricity jeopardy game The announcement of a new transition government was a smart move to distract attention, but ultimately adds to already widespread frustrations.

The opposition’s inability to mobilise large crowds on 19 December reflects its failure to translate popular anger in Congo’s major cities into political strength. Electricity usage by appliance Nonetheless, these frustrations remain widespread, also largely driven by a deepening economic crisis. Gas nozzle prank The sharp decrease of the value of the Congolese Franc for several months has had an enormous impact on people’s ability to buy essential goods and is also now affecting the economic position of Congo’s small middle-class.

This dire economic situation has had a disastrous effect on state revenues, which are currently insufficient to cover the monthly expenses of civil servants, including security forces. Electricity load shedding This means the government is even less likely to participate financially in the organisation of its own electoral process. Gas efficient suv 2015 And it will have to further degrade electricity and water services, which will in turn add to the population’s frustrations and feelings that state-led services are no longer legitimate.

These dynamics are most visible in Congo’s major cities, but we should also pay attention to the quickly deteriorating situation in rural areas, particularly but not exclusively in the east. Electricity generation by state There, a series of small-scale armed attacks against the Congolese army as well as increased ethnically-inspired violence highlight that the crisis is about more than just the president’s mandate. Electricity 101 presentation The constitutional crisis is also a trigger to re-express unresolved grievances.

Recently, new armed groups in the region have been instituted. Electricity year invented Meanwhile, others have forged new coalitions − for example between Bafulero and Babembe armed groups in Uvira and Fizi, or a number of Batembo groups in Kalehe. Gas 85 All these groups are repositioning themselves and trying to extend their zones of influence. Electricity and magnetism connect to form Their struggles are symbolically centred on Kabila’s position, but are rooted in claims of local authority, power and resources.

With the regime is no longer considered credible, armed groups now present themselves as the true and legitimate authorities. Electricity 24 hours They legitimise their existence by calling upon communities’ frustrations, linked to historical political marginalisation, and their need for protection. Electricity news in nigeria These same armed groups have − despite their fragmentation – also been able to consolidate themselves as powerbrokers in local politics.

The current crisis, and the prospect of elections, will only provoke new rounds of political competition. Gas 1940 hopper When driven or sponsored from the outside by disgruntled politicians or radicalised opposition forces, these armed groups could become a serious threat to local stability once again. Electricity 4th grade powerpoint Paradoxically, this would not necessarily be bad news for the regime in Kinshasa. Save electricity images It could simply create an additional incentive to delay or simply cancel the elections.

Koen Vlassenroot is Professor in Political Science and Director of the Conflict Research Group, Ghent University. Electricity nyc He also leads the Africa Programme of the Egmont Institute.

Kris Berwouts has worked for 25 years for different Belgian and international NGOs focused on building peace, reconciliation, security and democratic processes. Electricity cost nyc The last years he has been working as an independent expert on Central Africa. Gas x strips walmart His book Congo’s violent peace. Electricity symbols and meanings Conflict and struggle since the Great African War will be published in July 2017 by ZED Books.