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This paper presents a new measurement method based on the parallel plate capacitor concept, which determines complex permittivity of dielectric sheets and films with thicknesses up to about 3.5 mm. Unlike the conventional devices, this new method uses a greatly simplified calibration procedure and is capable of measuring at frequencies from 10 MHz to 2 GHz, and in some cases up to 6 GHz. It solves the parasitic impedance limitations in conventional capacitor methods by explicitly modeling the fixture with a full-wave computational electromagnetic code. Specifically, a finite difference time domain (FDTD) code was used to not only design the fixture, but to create a database-based inversion algorithm. The inversion algorithm converts measured fixture reflection (S11) into dielectric properties of the specimen under test. gas engine efficiency This paper provides details of the fixture design and inversion method. Finally, example measurements are shown to demonstrate the utility of the method on typical microwave substrates. Read More

Users of Vector Network Analyzers (VNAs) often need to estimate and strive to optimize their instrument’s measurement speed. gas works park address Many RF Engineers are interested in the tradeoffs between speed, accuracy and resolution in VNA measurements, especially those striving to achieve optimal automation of the instrument integrated in a larger measurement system or production environment. This application note details the determining factors for measurement cycle time in Copper Mountain Technologies VNAs. Generally speaking, the measurement cycle for any VNA consists of three major components: the per-point tuning and settling time of the generator, the per point measurement time, and a per-sweep time needed to process and transfer results, switch the generator between output ports, and return the generator to the start frequency. An additional, user-programmable delay between points is available in CMT instruments, which may be useful for integration with external equipment or DUTs with settling times of their own. gas vs electric oven running cost As will be seen, some of the delay components are effectively fixed, while others depend upon the measurement parameters and thus may be optimized by the user. Read More

Mixers are 3-port devices that incorporate nonlinear elements, typically diodes or transistors, to produce the sum or difference of two input frequencies. electricity distribution losses For example, in transceivers mixers are used to translate radio frequencies (RF) to intermediate frequencies (IF) to allow easier, cheaper, and more accurate processing as well as to translate intermediate frequencies to RF for communication, especially over antennas which are more efficient and smaller at higher frequencies. Engineers developing mixers or integrating mixers in systems often need to measure mixer performance, including conversion loss, phase and group delay, the 1 dB compression point, isolation between ports, and port VSWR. Measurements characterizing these parameters are easily performed on Vector Network Analyzers (VNAs) with advanced calibration techniques, including Scalar Mixer Calibration (SMC) and Vector Mixer Calibration (VMC). Both of these calibration methods are described in detail in the operating manuals of Copper Mountain Technologies’ S2 family of VNAs, available for download at This application note will give a brief overview of mixer fundamentals, describe important mixer characteristics, and detail various measurement processes. Read More

Copper Mountain Technologies produces lab-grade VNAs with outstanding measurement accuracy. As with every VNA, performing a good calibration is necessary for maximizing the accuracy of VNA measurement results, for de-embedding the effects of imperfect cables and components in the fixture, and for moving the reference plane to the DUT interfaces. electricity dance moms full episode There are several approaches for determination and application of VNA measurement corrections, including port extension (a relatively crude, approximate method), fixture de-embedding (with accuracy depending on correctness of the model), and calibrating with a calibration kit (a high accuracy approach). Generally, there are two broad categories of calibration kit types: traditional mechanical kits and automatic/electronic calibration modules. Within mechanical kits, there are two types of kits: those with standard “polynomial” coefficients and those with full S-parameter characterization data, also known as databased kits. hp gas online booking mobile number This application note introduces databased calibration kits, explains why their use is growing in popularity, and describes how they can be used with Copper Mountain Technologies VNAs. Read More