Corruption damaging zim recovery – zimbabwe situation electricity review worksheet answers

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Zimbabwe keeps loosing significant chunks of resources through various public sector scandals. In this current year alone, the trending cases where public officials (and their cronies) are being investigated for corruption include the Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority scandal, Zimbabwe Power Company, Hwange Colliery Company, Zimbabwe Airways, Zinara and Cottco scams, among others.

Recent allegations levelled against former ministers like Ignatius Chombo are a clear testimony of the level of political corruption in Zimbabwe. The corruption weevil has also penetrated in the football arena, where the Zimbabwe Football Association (Zifa) has had cases of mismanagement of public funds. In the majority of these occurrences, politically connected cronies or relatives of the political elites are the direct beneficiaries of stolen public funds.

The Zimbabwean education sector has not been spared of the corruption scandals. For instance, the corruption allegations by the Procurement Authority of Zimbabwe against the University of Zimbabwe (UZ) Vice-Chancellor Levi Nyagura is one such example. arkla gas pay bill In a short, the publicly known sectors where corruption is rife in Zimbabwe include the police service, public services (eg public licences, permits or utilities, identity-related document such as a driver’s licence and passports), land distribution, tax administration, customs, natural resources (eg gold and diamond), public procurement and evidently the Zimbabwean judicial system.

Given that corrupt deals are usually hidden activities, revenues and profits generated are not taxable. electricity hair stand up As such, corruption reduces any government’s revenue generation capacity. General law-abiding citizens have been subjected to harsh tax regimes, but authorities often fail to account for the public funds. This has given birth to a ‘them and us’ economy; where the disproportionate austerity measures fleece the poor majority, while ignoring criminal activities in the public sector.

The poor performance of most government parastatals and or state-owned enterprises which provide basic public services is largely explained by the amount of graft within these aforementioned institutions. For instance, basing on the Auditor-General’s 2017 audit report, 23 state-owned enterprises and parastatals are on the brink of failure due to poor corporate governance, corruption, political interference and mismanagement, among other financial wrongdoings.

Public institutions managing the very basic services which are essential for the efficient running of the country such as (rail and road transport, electricity, water, local grains etc.) have performed dismally over the years. As a result, the Zimbabwean roads have contributed to road carnage, persistent power cuts have curtailed down industrial production, poor water and drainage systems have caused the cholera pandemic, shortages of grains have forced the government to rely on imported grains.

Corruption is largely a source of lethargic development in Zimbabwe. This is largely so given that most of the government expenditures towards state development projects are diverted into personal projects of the political leadership. gas equations chemistry For instance, a significant number of white elephant projects are commonplace, among them Nssa Beitbridge hotel, the disused bus rank at Machipisa Shopping Centre in Highfields, the City Sports Centre and Magamba Hockey Stadium, to mention just a few, are the common white elephants.

Corruption has created a culture where human capital development is considered a secondary objective for human survival. Rent-seeking behaviour has become commonplace. Innovative ideas are also shunned, given that resources meant for scientific research projects are diverted into personal pockets. In instances where innovative ideas are generated, the cumbersome process of registering the ideas, brand names and trademarks has been complicated by massive corruption. As such, potential innovative ideas end up being launched in safe havens and Zimbabweans lose the valuable development ideas.

As if this is not enough, the corruption cancer has contributed to mushrooming of illicit activities within society. Given that corruption robs society of economic growth and the concomitant employment opportunities, the masses have resorted to the risky shadow activities. For instance, the foreign currency and basic goods black market, the smuggling of goods through national borders, massive drug trafficking and drug abuse, increases in criminal activities (eg car hijackings, burglaries, robberies, theft, etc) and prostitution.

Through its cosmetic forms such as cronyism and nepotism, corruption has created significant state oligarchies and kleptocracies in most African societies. gaston y la agrupacion santa fe In Zimbabwe, the commonly recognisable form of oligarchies largely emanates from the wealthy connected political cronies, family ties, political and military control. Financial theory and empirical studies worldwide generally postulate that kleptocrats engage in embezzlement of public funds and money laundering into stable jurisdictions so as to obscure the origins of wealth and safeguard it from domestic threats of economic instability.

The common public debates on state and legislative capture, embezzlement of public funds, money laundering, government trend of “rewarding friends and punishing foes”, nepotism practiced through disregarding individual merit and prioritising personal connections are all pointing towards Zimbabwe being an oligarchy and slowly becoming a kleptocracy.

The Zimbabwean problems are mainly emanating from the principal-agent theory. In short, the principal (central government) appoints an agent (anti-corruption commissions). gas near me now Practically, the agent always acts in line with the dictates and mandates of the principal. The principal is thus seen appointing corruption watchdogs to police themselves. Thus the principal-agent relationship becomes the major source of an impasse, where the agent only applies the regulations selectively and in situations that the principal deems necessary. This largely explains why Zimbabwe Anti-Corruption Commission has earned the “toothless bulldog” moniker.