Cost-benefit analysis of various california renewable portfolio standard targets_ is a 33% rps optimal_ (pdf download available) gas konigsforst

Renewable portfolio standards (RPSs׳) require a certain fraction of the electricity generated for a given region be produced from renewable resources. Static electricity bill nye California׳s RPS mandates that by 2020, 33% of the electricity sold in the state must be generated from renewables. Gas variables pogil packet answers Such mandates have important implications for the electricity sector as well as for the whole society. Electricity wiki In this paper, we estimate the costs and benefits of varying 2020 California RPS targets on electricity prices, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, criteria pollutant emissions, the electricity generation mix, the labor market, renewable investment decisions, and social welfare.

Gaston yla agrupacion santa fe 2016 We have extended the RPS Calculator model, developed by Energy and Environmental Economics (E3) Inc., to account for distributions of fuel and generation costs, to incorporate demand functions, and to estimate the effects of RPS targets on GHG emissions, criteria pollutant emissions, and employment. Gas 99 cents a litre The results of our modeling provide the following policy insights: (1) the average 2020 electricity price increases as the RPS target rises, with values ranging between $0.152 and $0.175/kW h (2008 dollars) for the 20% RPS to 50% RPS, respectively; (2) the 33% and 50% RPS targets decrease the GHG emissions by about 17.6 and 35.8 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MMTCO2e) relative to the 20% RPS; (3) the GHG emission reduction costs of the RPS options are high ($71–$94 per ton) relative to results from policy options other than RPS or prices that are common in the carbon markets; and (4) a lower target (e.g., a 27% RPS) provides higher social welfare than the 33% RPS (mandate) under low and moderate CO2 social costs (lower than $35/ton); while a higher RPS target (e.g., 50%) is more beneficial when using high CO2 social costs or rapid renewable technology diffusion. Youtube gas monkey However, under all studied scenarios, the mandated 33% RPS for California would not provide the best cost/benefit values among the possible targets and would not maximize the net social benefit objective.

[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The electricity sector is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) in the U.S. Electricity vocabulary words Many states have passed and Congress has considered Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), mandates that specific percentages of electricity be generated from renewable resources. Gas tax oregon We perform a technical and economic assessment and estimate the economic costs and net GHG reductions from a national 25 percent RPS by 2025 relative to coal-based electricity.

Eseva electricity bill payment This policy would reduce GHG emissions by about 670 million metric tons per year, 11 percent of 2008 U.S. E85 gas stations in ohio emissions. Igas energy shares The first 100 million metric tons could be abated for less than $36/metric ton. Ag gaston birmingham However, marginal costs climb to $50 for 300 million metric tons and to as much as $70/metric ton to fulfill the RPS. E 87 gasoline The total economic costs of such a policy are about $35 billion annually.

Electricity transmission We also examine the cost sensitivity to favorable and unfavorable technology development assumptions. Electricity japan We find that a 25 percent RPS would likely be an economically efficient method for utilities to substantially reduce GHG emissions only under the favorable scenario. Power definition physics electricity These estimates can be compared with other approaches, including increased R&D funding for renewables or deployment of efficiency and/or other low-carbon generation technologies. [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the past decade, state policies on renewable energy have been on the rise in the U.S., providing states with various options for encouraging the generation of renewable electricity.

Electricity sound effect Two promising policies, the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) and the Mandatory Green Power Option (MGPO), have been implemented in many states but the evidence about their effectiveness is mixed. World j gastrointest surg impact factor In this paper, we argue that recognizing the natural, social, and policy context under which MGPO and RPS are adopted is necessary in order to measure their true effectiveness. Gas news of manipur This is because the context rather than the policy might lead to positive outcomes and there is the possibility for sample bias. Year 6 electricity unit When controlling for the context in which the policies are implemented, we find that RPS has a negative impact on investments in renewable capacity.

Gas station car wash However, we find that investor-owned utilities seem to respond more positively to RPS mandates than publicly owned utilities. Gas in oil causes By contrast, MGPO appears to have a significant effect on installed renewable capacity for all utilities regardless of the context in which it is implemented.