Csir – national geophysical research institute electricity generation by country

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In Heat flow division, we have steady-state thermal conductivity meter (QL-10 C @ ANTER made) that can measure thermal conductivity of samples at room temperature (Figure 1a) A constant temperature difference across the stack (Figure 2b) is maintained by keeping temperatures in the upper plate at 45°C and lower plate at 5°C, using the heater on the top and a water circulator at the bottom (Figure 2c). To prevent heat loss to the surroundings, the stack is wrapped with thermal insulation material and the whole system is enclosed within an insulated housing Before measuring the thermal conductivity of samples, Thermal conductivity meter needs to be calibrated using reference specimens A typical calibration curve is shown in Figure 2d Measurements are taken after the stack reaches in steady-state condition. Reproducibility of the measurement is ±5%

Rock samples needs to prepare by breaking in to small chips of about 5-10 mm and filled into cylindrical canister that can hold about 400 g (Figure 1b) for getting the Th, K and U Concentrations three energy windows are chosen (also known as region of interst, ROI) that are centred around the three peaks (0.91 MeV, 1.46 MeV and 1.76 MeV (Figure 1c)

In Heat flow division, we have steady-state thermal conductivity meter (QL-10 C @ ANTER made) that can measure thermal conductivity of samples at room temperature (Figure 1a) A constant temperature difference across the stack (Figure 2b) is maintained by keeping temperatures in the upper plate at 45°C and lower plate at 5°C, using the heater on the top and a water circulator at the bottom (Figure 2c). To prevent heat loss to the surroundings, the stack is wrapped with thermal insulation material and the whole system is enclosed within an insulated housing Before measuring the thermal conductivity of samples, Thermal conductivity meter needs to be calibrated using reference specimens A typical calibration curve is shown in Figure 2d Measurements are taken after the stack reaches in steady-state condition. gas gas Reproducibility of the measurement is ±5%

That can measure thermal conductivity of samples between -20°C and 300 °C A constant temperature difference across the stack (Figure 3b) is maintained by upper and lower heater, Insulating fumace guard is provided for maintaining sample in require temperature . Before measuring the thermal conductivity of samples , thermal conductivity meter needs to be calibrated using reference specimens for the required temperature range, A typical calibration curve is shown in Figure 2d. Measurements are recorded after the stack reaches steady-state condition, Reproducibility of the measurement is ±8%

The Kappa bridge apparatus consists of the Pick-Up Unit, Control Unit and Computer. In principle the instrument represents a precision fully automatic inductivity bridge. It is equipped with automatic zeroing system and automatic compensation of the thermal drift of the bridge unbalance as well as automatic switching appropriate measuring range. Special diagnostics was embedded in MFK1 Kappa bridge, which monitors important processes during measurement with MFK1.

The world’s most sensitive and accurate instruments for measurement of remanent magnetization (NRM) of rocks based on classical (non-cryogenic) design. The new JR-6 feature two rotation speeds – the higher one enabling the maximum sensitivity to be reached, and the lower one enabling the measurement of soft sediment specimens. These instruments enable measurement of even very weakly magnetic sedimentary rocks including limestone.

The instruments consist of a spinner/pickup unit and a measurement control unit. All functions are microprocessor controlled, including digital filtration of the signal, control and test of the speed of specimen rotation, and execution of automatic tests for erroneous conditions. The measurement process is fully controlled from a computer.

EPMA works by bombarding a micro-volume of a sample with a focused electron beam (typical energy = 5-30 keV and size = 1-50 m) and collecting the X-ray photons thereby induced and emitted by the various elemental species. As the wavelengths of these X-rays are characteristic of the emitting species, the sample composition can be easily identified by recording EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry) and WDS spectra (Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy). WDS spectrometers are based on the Bragg’s law and use various moveable, shaped monocrystals as monochromators.

The available Bruker PXRD model is D 8 Advance with LYNXYE detector. It’s a rugged, high resolution, floor mounted, modular, multi-functional, state of the art technology, true plug and play designed research grade XRD with high precision alignment using LYNXYE detector. The PXRD system will be utilized for analysing samples of powder nature in a variety of multidisciplinary subjects like material sciences, metallurgy and in particular for the Geological Applications. The Structural & thermal stability of gas hydrates is an important aspect and PXRD is the tool to elucidate structural complexities of gas hydrates, which are stable under cryo temperatures at ambient pressure conditions. The PXRD coupled with cryostage (TTK450) is a unique facility for crystallographic structural analysis of gas hydrate samples synthesized. 5 gases The Diffraction data may be processed by automated ‘search-match’ software which makes use of the International Centre for Diffraction Data PDF-4+ database. Quantitative phase a

Principal: In EDXRF spectrometers, all of the elements in the sample are excited simultaneously, and an energy dispersive detector in combination with a multi-channel analyser is used to simultaneously collect the fluorescence radiation emitted from the sample and then separate the different energies of the characteristic radiation from each of the different sample elements.

EDXRF is a powerful technique which can be used for the analysis of solids (Be – U) and liquids (Na-U) of unknown materials. Within a few minutes’ samples can be well characterized. For industrial customers, their application can be setup to work in turn key operation suitable for process workers to test samples and produce good analytical results. The principal advantages of EDXRF systems are their simplicity, fast operation, lack of moving parts, and high source efficiency

Principle: It is an analytical technique useful for the detection of trace elements. ICP, abbreviation for Inductively Coupled Plasma, is one method of optical emission spectrometry. gas in back symptoms When plasma energy is given to an analysis sample from outside, the component elements (atoms) are excited. When the excited atoms return to low energy position, emission rays (spectrum rays) are released and the emission rays that correspond to the photon wavelength are measured.

Ion Chromatography is a process that allows the separation of ions and polar molecules based on their affinity to the ion exchanger. Exchange of ions is the basic principle in this type of Chromatography. In this process two types of exchangers i.e., cationic and anionic exchangers can be used Applications: Ion Chromatograph can be frequently used for determination of either anions (F-, NO3-, Cl-,PO43-,SO42-) or cations (Li+,Na+,K+,Mg2+,Ca2+) in single analysis. It is also useful for the determination of some transition elements and organic acids in environmental water samples.

Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis or UV/Vis) refers to absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region. This means it uses light in the visible and adjacent (near-UV and near-infrared (NIR)) ranges. The absorption in the visible range directly affects the perceived color of the chemicals involved. In this region of the electromagnetic spectrum, molecules undergo electronic transitions.

This instrument works on the principle Beer-Lambert law states that the absorbance of a solution is directly proportional to the concentration of the absorbing species in the solution and the path length. Thus, for a fixed path length, UV/Vis spectroscopy can be used to determine the concentration of the absorber in a solution. It is necessary to know how quickly the absorbance changes with concentration. tortugas ninjas This can be taken from references or more accurately, determined from a calibration curve.

TOC has been recognized as an analytic technique to measure water quality during the drinking water purification process. TOC provides an important role in quantifying the amount of NOM in the water source. TOC detection is an important measurement because of the effects it may have on the environment, human health, and manufacturing processes.

It is very important in detecting contaminants in drinking water, cooling water, water used in semiconductor manufacturing, and water for pharmaceutical use. Analysis may be made either as an online continuous measurement or a lab-based measurement. TOC is a highly sensitive, non-specific measurement of all organics present in a sample. It, therefore, can be used to regulate the organic chemical discharge to the environment in a manufacturing plant. In addition, low TOC can confirm the absence of potentially harmful organic chemicals in water used to manufacture pharmaceutical products

Waste samples contain non-volatile or semi-volatile substances or metals, using Hazardous Waste Filtration System for separation, extraction, and filtration can be done. This method was approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the system is designed specifically for Toxicity Test and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).

Low Level Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer is utilized for measurement of alpha (α), beta (β), activates of environmental radioisotopes such as tritium, radiocarbon, prosperous-32, radon-222 etc. find a gas station close to me The spectrometer in our lab is primarily utilized for radiocarbon dating of inorganic (groundwater) and organic (charcoal, wood, peat, shells etc.) material for age dating. The age dating limits of the system in our lab is up to 40,000 yr BP.

The Dual Inlet Isotope Ration Mass spectrometer is capable of measuring stable isotopes of Oxygen-18(18O), Deuterium (2H), carbon-13, Sulpher-34 and Nitrogen -15. The present IRMS is being used for analyses of 18O and Deuterium in natural waters. The system has an automated liquid handler which accommodates sixty water samples at a time. The system is fully automated right from gas (H2 or CO2) filling into the water samples vials to analyses of 18O/D

The Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) instrument separates chemical mixtures (the GC component) and identifies the components at a molecular level (the MS component). It is one of the most accurate tools for analyzing environmental samples. The GC works on the principle that a mixture will separate into individual substances when heated. The heated gases are carried through a column with an inert gas (such as helium). As the separated substances emerge from the column opening, they flow into the MS. Mass spectrometry identifies compounds by the mass of the analyte moleculeby standard MS Libraries such as NIST and Wiley that contain more than 200,000 mass spectra of organic compound.