Cumulus netq – cumulus netq 1.4.1 – cumulus networks gas pump icon

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Cumulus® NetQ is a network operations tool set that provides actionable insight into and operational intelligence about the health of the entire Linux-based data center — from the container, virtual machine, or host, all the way to the switch and port. Working hand-in-hand with Cumulus Linux, NetQ enables organizations to validate network state, both during regular operations and for post-mortem diagnostic analysis. Running on Cumulus Linux switches and other certified systems — such as Ubuntu®, Red Hat®, and CentOS hosts — NetQ captures network data and other state information in real time, providing cloud architects and network operations teams the ability to operate with visibility into the entire network. It is integrated with container orchestrators and the Netlink interface to make this happen. With NetQ, network operations changes from a manual, reactive, box-by-box approach to an automated, informed and agile one.

• Preventative Validation: NetQ easily validates potential network configuration changes in a virtualized environment or lab using check, show and trace algorithms. NetQ eliminates the need to check switches or servers one by one and can reduce manual errors before they are rolled into production (one of the main causes of network downtime).

NetQ also offers Image and Provisioning Management (IPM), which makes it possible to get your new Cumulus Linux switches up and running quickly by p roviding bootstrapping and lifecycle management capabilities, including image and ZTP configuration management. IPM contains local storage and distribution services for the Cumulus Linux network operating system (NOS) and provisioning scripts used to deploy and upgrade Cumulus Linux and NetQ. With IPM, network deployment changes from a tedious box-by-box installation process to a consistent and predictable one. Contents

The diagram shows physical connections (in the form of grey lines) between Spine 01 and four Leaf devices and two Exit devices, and Spine 02 and the same four Leaf devices and two Exit devices. Leaf 01 and Leaf 02 are connected to each other over a peerlink and act as an MLAG pair for Server 01 and Server 02. Leaf 03 and Leaf 04 are connected to each other over a peerlink and act as an MLAG pair for Server 03 and Server 04. electricity ground explained The Edge is connected to both Exit devices, and the Internet node is connected to Exit 01.

While not the preferred deployment method, you might choose to implement NetQ within your data network. In this scenario, there is no overlay and all traffic to and from the NetQ Agents and the Telemetry Server traverses the data paths along with your regular network traffic. The roles of the switches in the CLOS network are the same, except that the Telemetry Server performs the aggregation function that the OOB management switch performed. If your network goes down, you might not have access to the Telemetry Server for troubleshooting.

NetQ supports a high availability deployment for users who prefer a solution in which the collected data and processing provided by the Telemetry Server remains available through alternate equipment should the TS fail for any reason. In this configuration, three TSs are deployed, with one as the master and two as replicas. electricity trading hubs Data from the NetQ Agents is sent to all three switches so that if the master TS fails, one of the replicas automatically becomes the master and continues to store and provide the telemetry data. This example is based on an OOB management configuration, and modified to support high availability for NetQ.

The NetQ Agent polls the user space for information about the performance of the various routing protocols and services that are running on the switch. Cumulus Networks supports BGP and OSPF Free Range Routing (FRR) protocols as well as static addressing. Cumulus Linux also supports LLDP and MSTP among other protocols, and a variety of services such as systemd and sensors. For hosts, the NetQ Agent also polls for performance of containers managed with Docker or Kubernetes orchestrators. All of this information is used to provide the current health of the network and verify it is configured and operating correctly.

For example, if the NetQ Agent learns that an interface has gone down, a new BGP neighbor has been configured, or a container has moved, it provides that information to the TS. That information can then be used to notify users of the operational state change through various channels. By default, data is logged in NetQ and visible in rsyslog, but you can configure the Notifier component in NetQ to send the information to a third-party notification application as well. NetQ supports ELK/Logstash, PagerDuty, Slack, and Splunk integrations.

The NetQ Agent interacts with the Netlink communications between the Linux kernel and the user space, listening for changes to the network state, configurations, routes and MAC addresses. electricity vocabulary words NetQ uses this information to enable notifications about these changes so that network operators and administrators can respond quickly when changes are not expected or favorable.

The NetQ Agent also interacts with the hardware platform to obtain performance information about various physical components, such as fans and power supplies, on the switch. Operational states and temperatures are measured and reported, along with cabling information to enable management of the hardware and cabling, and proactive maintenance.

The NetQ CLI enables validation of your network health through three major sets of commands. They extract the information from the analysis engine, trace engine, and notifier. The analysis engine is continually validating the connectivity and configuration of the devices and protocols running on the network. Using the check and show commands displays the status of the various components and services on a network-wide and complete software stack basis. For example, you can perform a network-wide check on BGP with a single netq check bgp command. The command lists any devices that have misconfigurations or other operational errors in seconds. When errors or misconfigurations are present, using the netq show bgp command displays the BGP configuration on each device so that you can compare and contrast each device, looking for potential causes. electricity joules Check and Show commands are available for numerous components and services as shown in the following table.

All of the check, show and trace commands can be run for the current status and for a prior point in time. For example, this is useful when you receive messages from the night before, but are not seeing any problems now. You can use the netq check command to look for configuration or operational issues around the time that the messages are timestamped. Then use the netq show commands to see information about how the devices in question were configured at that time or if there were any changes in a given timeframe. Optionally, you can use the netq trace command to see what the connectivity looked like between any problematic nodes at that time. This example shows problems occurred on spine01, leaf04, and server03 last night. The network administrator received notifications and wants to investigate. The diagram is followed by the commands to run to determine the cause of a BGP error on spine01. Note that the commands use the around option to see the results for last night and that they can be run from any switch in the network.

The NetQ Notifier manages the events that occur for the devices and components, protocols and services that it receives from the NetQ Agents. The Notifier enables you to capture and filter events that occur to manage the behavior of your network. This is especially useful when an interface or routing protocol goes down and you want to get them back up and running as quickly as possible, preferably before anyone notices or complains. You can improve resolution time significantly by creating filters that focus on topics appropriate for a particular group of users. You can easily create filters around events related to BGP, LNV, and MLAG session states, interfaces, links, NTP and other services, fans, power supplies, and physical sensor measurements.

Every event or entry in the NetQ database is stored with a timestamp of when the event was captured by the NetQ Agent on the switch or server. This timestamp is based on the switch or server time where the NetQ Agent is running, and is pushed in UTC format. It is important to ensure that all devices are NTP synchronized to prevent events from being displayed out of order or not displayed at all when looking for events that occurred at a particular time or within a time window.

Interface state, IP addresses, routes, ARP/ND table (IP neighbor) entries and MAC table entries carry a timestamp that represents the time the event happened (such as when a route is deleted or an interface comes up) — except the first time the NetQ agent is run. If the network has been running and stable when a NetQ agent is brought up for the first time, then this time reflects when the agent was started. Subsequent changes to these objects are captured with an accurate time of when the event happened.

Data that is captured and saved based on polling, and just about all other data in the NetQ database, including control plane state (such as BGP or MLAG), has a timestamp of when the information was captured rather than when the event actually happened, though NetQ compensates for this if the data extracted provides additional information to compute a more precise time of the event. m gasol For example, BGP uptime can be used to determine when the event actually happened in conjunction with the timestamp.

When retrieving the timestamp, JSON output always returns the time in microseconds that have passed since the epoch time ( January 1, 1970 at 00:00:00 GMT). Non-JSON output displays how far in the past the event occurred. The closer the event is to the present, the more granular is the time shown. For example, if an event happened less than an hour ago, NetQ displays the information with a timestamp with microseconds of granularity. electricity 101 episode 1 However, the farther you are from the event, this granularity is coarser. This example shows timestamps with different time granularity.

The DHCP server uses the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol to dynamically assign IP addresses to network devices and to provide a default path (HTTP URL) to ONIE images and ZTP scripts. You can choose to use the embedded server for all of your DHCP services or integrate with your own. For more detail about how DHCP works, refer to the RFC 2131 standard. Network Installation Manager

The Network Install manager uses ONIE (Open Network Install Environment) to store and distribute network operating system (NOS) images. ONIE combines a boot loader and a small operating system for network switches that provides an environment for automated provisioning. ONIE utilizes the CPU complex of the switch, including the CPU SoC, DRAM, boot flash, and mass storage, and creates an environment for installation. On initial boot of a server, ONIE configures the network management interface and locates and executes the Cumulus Networks OS installation program. For more detail about the ONIE standard, refer to ONIE. electricity usage calculator south africa Provisioning Manager

The Provisioning manager uses ZTP (Zero Touch Provisioning) to store and distribute provisioning scripts. ZTP provides a provisioning framework that allows for a one-time, user-provided script to be executed. On the first boot of a Cumulus Linux switch, IPM uses a default script, ztp-default.sh, provided through the DHCP server, to perform provisioning tasks, such as license installation, connectivity testing, and specifying a hostname. You can create your own ZTP script to be used instead by storing it in a designated location. For more detail about how ZTP works and tips for writing your own scripts, refer to ZTP. Command Line Interface

IPM installs and provisions bare metal servers to quickly transform them into Cumulus Linux switches. On the initial boot of a white box switch, IPM automatically loads the switch with the Cumulus Linux OS and provisions it with the network information required to make it a functional network node, including an IP address. This figure shows the interactions of the various IPM components with the switch hardware during an initial bring up. The DHCP server listens to port 67 for DHCP client messages and sends messages to client port 68. The tips-traffic service uses port 9300 on the Telemetry Server for requests. Objects shown in purple are components of IPM.