Cupressus (cypress) description electricity towers in japan

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• 2006: Little, performing detailed molecular analysis of all species in the genus, concludes that Cupressus is paraphyletic. This is further discussed below, but briefly, Little’s work indicates that the New World cypresses diverged from a clade that later produced Juniperus. He assigns the New World cypresses and X. nootkatensis to the genus Callitropsis (an old name for X. nootkatensis).

• 2010: Mao et al. perform a still more detailed molecular analysis that includes nearly all species in Juniperus and all species in Cupressus, Chamaecyparis, Xanthocyparis, and several related monotypic genera. static electricity in the body The analysis indicates that Cupressus ( sensu strictu) plus Xanthocyparis plus Hesperocyparis comprise a monophyletic clade, sister to Juniperus. This clade is here treated as the genus Cupressus, with four subgenera as delineated below.

• 2012: Terry et al. (2012) published a new molecular analysis covering much the same ground as Mao et al. (2010) but focusing on relationships between the New World taxa, with outgroup comparisons to Old World taxa and several species of Juniperus. Their cladograms are overall quite similar to those of Mao et al. (2010), but provide more detail to elucidate relationships within the New World taxa.

The 2010 cladogram of Mao et al. is shown at right. This is entirely based upon evidence from molecular data, i.e., evidence derived from sequencing portions of the DNA from each species represented. electricity bill average The cladogram shows degrees of similarity between existing taxa, but it can also be interpreted as a representation of the phylogeny of these taxa. Indeed, Mao et al. (2010) assign dates to a number of the important phylogenetic milestones in the species’ evolution, based on variants of the "molecular clock" hypothesis that, subject to certain assumptions, changes in the genetic code accumulate at a relatively constant rate. Note that the cladogram omits C. revealiana, which was only recently recognized as a distinct species; it is closely allied to C. montana.

The molecular data used to generate the cladogram were processed in a very rigidly specified, unbiased manner to produce the cladogram. However, past experience with the Cupressaceae has shown that measured DNA data are only partial estimators of actual genetic relationships; consequently, interpretation of relationships between genera within the family, and relationships between species in each genus, has changed continuously over the years as new DNA data became available. Sometimes these interpretations have changed because different types of genetic material have been analyzed (for instance, chloroplast vs. nuclear ribosomal material); sometimes they have changed because different portions of the genome have been studied. The interested reader can see this by reviewing the studies by Gadek and Quinn (1993), Brunsfeld et al. (1994), Gadek et al. (2000), Little et al. (2004), Little (2006), and Mao et al. (2010); many other studies show a comparable progression of understanding based on analysis of genetic material in Juniperus.

I have chosen here to broadly define Cupressus, and to reduce Hesperocyparis, Callitropsis and Xanthocyparis to synonymy, for two principal reasons. First, it isn’t possible to distinguish Hesperocyparis from the old world Cupressus on the basis of morphology; the distinction is made by applying a complex analytical algorithm to a large molecular data set. I do not know of any other case where someone has tried to assert the existence of two separable genera on the basis of such an abstract, artificial process. 935 gas block Second, and perhaps even more important, it is not necessary to subdivide Cupressus. Although the species occupy very diverse ecological settings, ranging from dominant trees of the temperate rainforest to shrubby trees of the high mountains and subtropical deserts, yet still if you confine your gaze to their cones and foliage, then they all resemble each other much more than any of them resembles another genus in the Cupressaceae. Breaking apart Cupressus makes about as much sense as breaking apart Juniperus, or any other large conifer genus for that matter. It could be done, but it would be inconsistent with the existing norms for distinguishing between genera within the Cupressaceae.

• Subgenus Hesperocyparis includes 15 species, all but one ( C. nootkatensis) of the species native to the New World. la gasolina lyrics The analyses by Mao et al. (2010) and Terry et al. (2012) indicate very high confidence that within this group, C. bakeri is sister to a clade containing all of the other species. Apart from C. bakeri, there are three well-supported clades: one contains only C. macnabiana; another contains C. goveniana, C. macrocarpa, C. nevadensis, and C. sargentii (northern species); and a third contains the remaining species named above (southern species) (Terry et al. 2012).

Cupressus as described here contains 25 species, all of which have been described as species but many of which have been reduced by some authors to subspecies or varieties on debatable grounds. There are also more liberal taxonomies; the Cupressus Conservation Project website finds 33 species. The large range of opinion occurs because cypresses generally occur in small isolated populations distinguished by small differences, interpreted by some as valid at species rank, but by others only at varietal or subspecific rank. Analyses performed in the 1990s using morphological and chemical data (e.g. kushal gas agencies belgaum Frankis 1992, Eckenwalder 1993, Farjon 2005) tended to "lump" taxa into a relatively small number of species (as few as 12). Conversely, the more narrow species concept was early advocated by Wolf (1948) in his monograph on the New World cypresses and was later supported by Rushforth (1987) and, for the California species, by Lanner (1999). A more recent analysis using morphological, chemical and multiple lines of molecular/genetic data ( Little 2006) also judged that many of the isolated populations are sufficiently distinct to be regarded as discrete species.

Taxa that have been treated as varieties of C. arizonica in recent treatments ( Eckenwalder 1993, Farjon 2005) all may warrant species rank, or more particularly, may be more closely related to other species (such as C. lusitanica and C. guadalupensis) but have not yet been so described. A similar problem applies to C. forbesii, formerly treated as a variety of C. guadalupensis but now seeming to be just as closely related to C. stephensonii. These taxa represent a significant, persistent taxonomic problem that dogs the taxa here treated as C. arizonica, C. benthamii, C. forbesii, C. guadalupensis, C. lusitanica, C. montana, C. nevadensis and C. stephensonii: namely, that all of these taxa appear to represent a species complex rooted in northwest Mexico, an area which has not been adequately studied. A very similar problem applies to the Himalayan taxa, an area where many species have been described but much analysis remains to be done. electricity billy elliot Description

Trees or large shrubs, evergreen. Branchlets terete or quadrangular, in decussate arrays in most species; flattened (comblike), superficially resembling Chamaecyparis or Thuja in others. Leaves opposite decussate in 4 ranks, rarely in alternating whorls of 3 in 6 ranks. Adult leaves appressed to divergent, scalelike, rhomboid, free portion of long-shoot leaves to 4 mm; abaxial gland present or absent. Pollen cones with 4-10 pairs of sporophylls, each sporophyll with 3-10 pollen sacs. Seed cones maturing in (?1-)2 years, exact maturation period poorly researched, mostly varying from about 16-25 months after pollination; generally persisting closed many years or until opened by fire, but opening on maturity, and falling soon after seed release, in a few species; globose or oblong, 8-43 mm; scales persistent, (2)3-6(7) opposite decussate pairs, valvate, peltate, thick and woody, the terminal pair either fused or open with a small central columella (varying from cone to cone on a single tree). electricity song 2015 Seeds (3)5-20 per scale, lenticular or faceted, narrowly 2-winged; cotyledons 2-5. x= 11 ( Eckenwalder 1993, Frankis 1999). Distribution and Ecology

Cupressus contains more species that attain really large sizes than any other genus in the family. Data are not yet available for a number of species, but of the documented ones, C. nootkatensis seems to be the leader, at 416 cm dbh and 61 m tall. C. gigantea may be comparably large; the data are vague and unreliable but of several published estimates, the smallest place it at 480 cm dbh and 46 m tall. C. macrocarpa is also quite impressive at 476 cm dbh and 31.1 m tall. There are few good data for C. cashmeriana; is said to attain 95m in height, and a 61m tall specimen is known. I have seen photos that appear to give it diameters at or close to 300 cm. electricity water analogy C. dupreziana subsp. dupreziana is said to get to 380 cm dbh and 22 m tall, which is quite impressive for such a rare taxon (the last census found 233 living specimens). The remaining species are less than 300 cm dbh, in other words, some of them are still quite impressive, especially considering their affinity for relatively hostile habitats such as deserts and high mountains. Oldest

Several species are of horticultural importance; fastigiate forms of C. sempervirens, C. duclouxiana and C. funebris have been cultivated for ornament for several thousand years in the Mediterranean region and S China respectively, and the highly decorative weeping C. cashmeriana has been tended for many centuries around Buddhist temples in Sikkim, Bhutan, Assam and nearby areas of Tibet and India.