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Pure vanilla extract is derived from the orchid Vanilla planifolia, a rambling, vigorous vine which grows on tree trunks, can reach 75′ and is native to Mexico and Central America. The plant’s fragrant, yellow to green flowers bloom for exactly one day and must be pollinated while in full bloom in order to produce a vanilla bean. Adding to the pollination complexity, in the wild, each flower has less than a 1% chance of being visited by the plant-specific pollinator, the stingless bee of the genus Melapona. electricity and circuits class 6 questions Given these odds, commercial vanilla producers employ a hand pollination technique. Manual pollination was first attempted in the 1840’s by a clever twelve year old boy who worked in vanilla fields on the island of Réunion, east of Madagascar. Hundreds of years later, essentially the same labor-intensive process is still used at commercial plantations.

The flowers are self fertile – containing both male and female parts. The pollination process involves moving pollen from the flower’s anther to the stigma with a toothpick or finger. If successful, in 5-9 months the flower will produce a green bean-like fruit which will be picked and fermented before becoming the dark brown, prized vanilla pod. Once the pods are dried, they are steeped in an alcohol and water mixture to create the extract we bake with and enjoy as an aromatic in perfumes and household products. This video shows the pollination process – not a job for unsteady hands! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YOAi2WeLsCs

Let me start by saying I’ve killed my share of houseplants, but one that has lived for close to three decades is the Zygocactus. Commercially, growers sell two slightly different plants as Zygocactus: the Thanksgiving cactus which has pointy edged branch segments and blooms around turkey time and the Christmas cactus which has rounded segments and blooms for its namesake. Care for the plants is essentially the same. gas 89 Mine, shown above, is the Thanksgiving variety, Schlumbergera truncate. Through periods of neglect, inconsistent feeding and infrequent (twice maybe?) repotting, this plant keeps blooming prolifically year after year. I’ve rooted cuttings several times as gifts, but curiously, the offspring have rarely flowered in their new homes, where I might add, they get more TLC than they would living with me. This begs the question, what does this plant need to thrive and re-bloom? Here are the best tips from the experts and a few of my own observations.

• Spring and Summer are its active growth times.Prune when it is done blooming or in early summer to promote side branching. Cuttings can easily be rooted in water or soil. Adding houseplant food during the growth period helps. I have cut back branches to about six inches in the spring and the plant tripled in size by the end of the summer.

• Here’s the key! It needs longer autumn nights to rebloom. Photoperiodism is a plant’s reaction to periods of light, similar to our circadian rhythm. Starting in mid to late September, the Zygocactus needs between nine and twelve hours of uninterrupted darkness each day in order to flower. Thanksgiving cactus take about six weeks of longer nights to sprout buds, Christmas cactus need about eight to twelve weeks. This longer “sleep” period is the trickiest part of the reblooming process and why the porch, which is generally dark at night, works so well. Other options are to locate the plant in a similarly lit room, or early each evening, cover it with a box or put it in a closet. Complete darkness insures maximum blooms. ideal gas questions From experience, I’ve found that the occasional interruption of darkness reduces blooms, but will not thwart all flowers.

• Watch for bud drop. This could indicate you’ve reduced water too much. If the plant is new to you, it also could be reacting to a change in environment. Drafts or temperatures below 60 degrees may also be the culprit. I often see shriveled tiny buds at the end of the blooming cycle, as though the plant is exhausted from the work it takes to flower for weeks on end. I found no science to support this notion, just my take on it!

Ailanthus altissima or Tree of Heaven, is a notorious, fast growing, invasive plant which left unchecked can quickly become a large shrub or substantial tree. An urban nuisance, you’ve likely seen it jumping out of cracks in sidewalks, pushing through established shrubs and lining alleys where little else will flourish. I recently found a seedling growing in the corner of my pebble-lined basement window well, a testament to its ability to survive in poor soil with little moisture. It will grow most anywhere except very dense shade and swamps and is capable of choking out desirable plants, forming thickets and damaging sewer lines or building foundations. The vigorous lateral root system sends up numerous suckers and the plant will also easily establish by seed. Remember the novel A Tree Grows in Brooklyn? The title’s tree is Tree of Heaven – aptly used as a metaphor for determination and survival.

Ailanthus altissima has several distinguishing characteristics detailed in this Colorado State University publication. Sometimes mistaken for Sumac, Tree of Heaven leaves are pinnately compound (made up of several elongated leaflets) with a glandular notched base and smooth edge. The smooth leaflet margins differentiate the plant from Sumac, which has a jagged leaf margin. power outage houston reliant When Tree of Heaven foliage is crushed it has a foul odor resembling rancid peanut butter, hence another common name, Stink Tree. Clusters of yellow-green flowers emerge in spring; later in the season, female plants produce tan to reddish, single-winged samaras or seed pods. Large triangular leaf scars are visible on the twigs and are another defining characteristic of this notorious plant.

Hummingbirds have been dancing around my yard this summer, lured by plants including Goldflame Honeysuckle, Penstemons (Red Rocks and Pike’s Peak), Coral Bells, Butterfly Bush and brightly colored annuals such as Verbena, Salvia and Geranium. Red Birds in a Tree was irresistible to them last year, but sadly did not return this year (any suggestions for getting this perennial to reliably come back year after year?). Agastache and Bee Balms are among other highly prized nectar sources. The Hummingbird Society offers this list of recommended plant families.

Hummers are guided to nectar sources by color – they have no sense of smell – they rely on their keen vision to spot plants or the common red bird feeder filled with sugar-water. Bright hues, especially red, orange and purple, which can be seen from distances of 30’ to 50’ in the air, signal that a good meal awaits. gas what i smoke Tubular flowers allow hummers to hover near the bloom and lick nectar with their forked, fringed tongues. As with other pollinators, swaths of the same plant make for effective grazing and a succession of season long blooms encourages return visits. Avoidance of pesticides, a good source of water and shrubs or trees for perching and nesting also make an inviting habitat.

According to the University of California-Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, a hummingbird’s wing beat ranges from 720-5400 times per minute when hovering and they have been clocked in flight at 33+ miles per hour! On average, a hummer weighs less than a nickel and consumes about twice its weight in nectar, spiders and insects daily. Their metabolism is 100 times faster than an elephant’s, requiring them to busily visit 1,000 to 2,000 flowers daily. They can fly in rain and are the only bird that fly backwards. The distinctive humming sound is made by the wings in flight and actually sounds more like a whistle to me.

These aerial acrobats will be around till September when they start their journey back to Mexico, with the promise of return next spring. If you don’t already enjoy hummingbirds in your yard, consider adding some plants to lure them in – and encourage your neighbors to do the same to create a larger, more inviting haven for these birds. You won’t regret it.