Dermwire study lipid that aids normal skin turnover may help psoriasis electricity and circuits ppt

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Toll-like receptors detect external invaders as well as internal damage signals then activate an immune response. electricity prices going up Our skin—our largest organ and front line of defense—and a variety of skin cell types make antimicrobial peptides, which function like an endogenous antibiotic to help the skin protect us. Psoriasis upsets the works by increasing both the production of skin cells and production of these antimicrobials by those cells.

In some patients it may be a problematic immune system that initiates the vicious cycle of skin cells producing proteins called cytokines that call in more immune cells that make more cytokines that cause skin cells to make even more cytokines and excessively proliferate, says Bollag. In others, the antimicrobials may initiate the vicious cycle. Either way, more antimicrobials get produced which is probably beneficial since psoriasis also impairs the skin’s ability to prevent invaders. But these high levels of antimicrobials also produce an inflammatory response much like an invader’s might, resulting in the red, flaky patches that typically surface on high-touch areas like the elbows, forearms and knees and also show up on the scalp and elsewhere, says Dr. u gas hampton Bollag, the study’s corresponding author.

Because at higher levels, the body sees these protective antimicrobial peptides as danger-associated molecular patterns, or DAMPS, which, as the name indicates, it views as signs of danger. DAMPS then activate toll-like receptors. It’s the increased and chronic level in psoriasis that heightens the awareness and response, says first author Dr. Vivek Choudhary, molecular biologist and physiologist in the MCG Department of Physiology. Once toll-like receptors get activated, the immune system makes proinflammatory cytokines that bring in T cells, which help drive the immune system attacks.

The investigators used S100A9 as their representative antimicrobial. power kinetic energy In psoriasis, the levels of S100A9 correlate with the severity of the disease and, when treatment works, blood levels of S100A9 decrease. They found that both in keratinocytes as well as inflammation-promoting immune cells called macrophages, PG suppressed activation of toll-like receptors by DAMPS, in this case S100A9.

This is particularly important in body areas regularly exposed to the elements like the skin, lungs and gastrointestinal tract, she says. Maybe part of the problem with psoriasis is that this fine control no longer works well, she says. Inflammation in the absence of an infection is a hallmark of psoriasis. The resulting inflammation produces a “feed forward” response: Keratinocytes start to excessively proliferate and abnormally differentiate and the skin thickens. o gastronomo PG enables the normal differentiation of new skin cells as cells make their way up multiple layers, reach the surface and old cells slough off. PG is made from glycerin, a natural alcohol, water attractor and key component of many lipids, which helps skin look better and aids this healthy production and maturation of high-turnover skin cells. Glycerin is transported by aquaporin-3, which the MCG investigators believe is decreased in psoriasis versus healthy skin.

Today there are a variety of topical treatments for psoriasis, including vitamin D analogues and glucocorticoids, but nothing that works great for all patients, Dr. Bollag says. Part of the problem likely is that psoriasis causes vary and the reality that they are mostly not understood. gas vs electric oven efficiency Systemic drugs also are given that generally suppress the immune response, which have obvious side effects like leaving patients susceptible to infection and cancer. Dr. Bollag explains that she doesn’t think PG will be a magic bullet either, but may one day be a good option for patients with mild disease or as an adjunct to other therapies.

PG is also a component of surfactant, which enables the airs sacs in the lungs to properly inflate so we can breathe. It’s been shown to inhibit inflammation in the lungs induced by microorganisms and that it works there as well through toll-like receptors. Bollag notes these new findings about what happens in the skin are likely applicable to similar conditions, where this so-called “sterile inflammation” occurs in response to substances naturally found in the body.