Desalination may help reduce conflict in middle east

Edo Bar-Zeev, a scientist with the Zuckerberg Institute for Water Research, is working to improve desalination technology. C gastronomie brignais Photo by Andrew Lavin.

Bar-Zeev, who recently joined Israel’s Zuckerberg Institute for Water Research after completing his postdoc work at Yale University, is an expert on biofouling, which has always been an Achilles’ heel of desalination and one of the reasons it has been considered a last resort. Gas kansas Desal works by pushing saltwater into membranes containing microscopic pores. Gas efficient cars 2015 The water gets through, while the larger salt molecules are left behind. 76 gas card login Microorganisms in seawater quickly colonize the membranes and block the pores, and controlling them requires periodic costly and chemical-intensive cleaning. 2015 electricity increase But Bar-Zeev and colleagues developed a chemical-free system using porous lava stone to capture the microorganisms before they reach the membranes. 9gag instagram logo It’s just one of many breakthroughs in membrane technology that have made desalination much more efficient. Ideal gas questions Israel now gets 55 percent of its domestic water from desalination, and that has helped to turn one of the world’s driest countries into the unlikeliest of water giants.

Driven by necessity, Israel is learning to squeeze more out of a drop of water than any country on Earth, and much of that learning is happening at the Zuckerberg Institute, where researchers have pioneered new techniques in drip irrigation, water treatment and desalination. Grade 9 electricity review They have developed resilient well systems for African villages and biological digesters than can halve the water usage of most homes.

Bar-Zeev believes that Israel’s solutions can help its parched neighbors, too — and in the process, bring together old enemies in common cause.The institute’s original mission was to improve life in Israel’s bone-dry Negev Desert, but the lessons look increasingly applicable to the entire Fertile Crescent. Physics electricity and magnetism study guide “The Middle East is drying up,” says Osnat Gillor, a professor at the Zuckerberg Institute who studies the use of recycled wastewater on crops. Circle k gas station locations “The only country that isn’t suffering acute water stress is Israel.”

That water stress has been a major factor in the turmoil tearing apart the Middle East, but Bar-Zeev believes that Israel’s solutions can help its parched neighbors, too — and in the process, bring together old enemies in common cause.

Bar-Zeev acknowledges that water will likely be a source of conflict in the Middle East in the future. K electric jobs 2016 “But I believe water can be a bridge, through joint ventures,” he says. Hp gas online “And one of those ventures is desalination.”

In 2008, Israel teetered on the edge of catastrophe. Gas vs diesel rv A decade-long drought had scorched the Fertile Crescent, and Israel’s largest source of freshwater, the Sea of Galilee, had dropped to within inches of the “black line” at which irreversible salt infiltration would flood the lake and ruin it forever. Grade 9 electricity unit Water restrictions were imposed, and many farmers lost a year’s crops.

Their counterparts in Syria fared much worse. Chapter 7 electricity test As the drought intensified and the water table plunged, Syria’s farmers chased it, drilling wells 100, 200, then 500 meters (300, 700, then 1,600 feet) down in a literal race to the bottom. Gas bloating after eating Eventually, the wells ran dry and Syria’s farmland collapsed in an epic dust storm. 2015 electricity rates More than a million farmers joined massive shantytowns on the outskirts of Aleppo, Homs, Damascus and other cities in a futile attempt to find work and purpose.

Water is driving the entire region to desperate acts.And that, according to the authors of “Climate Change in the Fertile Crescent and Implications of the Recent Syrian Drought,” a 2015 paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, was the tinder that burned Syria to the ground. Gas finder map “The rapidly growing urban peripheries of Syria,” they wrote, “marked by illegal settlements, overcrowding, poor infrastructure, unemployment, and crime, were neglected by the Assad government and became the heart of the developing unrest.”

Similar stories are playing out across the Middle East, where drought and agricultural collapse have produced a lost generation with no prospects and simmering resentments. Grade 9 electricity Iran, Iraq and Jordan all face water catastrophes. O gastro Water is driving the entire region to desperate acts.

Except Israel. Gas in babies that breastfeed Amazingly, Israel has more water than it needs. Gas unlimited houston The turnaround started in 2007, when low-flow toilets and showerheads were installed nationwide and the national water authority built innovative water treatment systems that recapture 86 percent of the water that goes down the drain and use it for irrigation — vastly more than the second-most-efficient country in the world, Spain, which recycles 19 percent.

But even with those measures, Israel still needed about 1.9 billion cubic meters (2.5 billion cubic yards) of freshwater per year and was getting just 1.4 billion cubic meters (1.8 billion cubic yards) from natural sources. Gas tax That 500-million-cubic-meter (650-million-cubic-yard) shortfall was why the Sea of Galilee was draining like an unplugged tub and why the country was about to lose its farms.

The country faces a previously unfathomable question: What to do with its extra water?Enter desalination. Gas 10 8 schlauchadapter The Ashkelon plant, in 2005, provided 127 million cubic meters (166 million cubic yards) of water. Electricity rate per kwh philippines Hadera, in 2009, put out another 140 million cubic meters (183 million cubic yards). Electricity in costa rica current And now Sorek, 150 million cubic meters (196 million cubic yards). Electricity and magnetism worksheets All told, desal plants can provide some 600 million cubic meters (785 million cubic yards) of water a year, and more are on the way.

The Sea of Galilee is fuller. Electricity in the body symptoms Israel’s farms are thriving. Electricity song 2015 And the country faces a previously unfathomable question: What to do with its extra water?

Inside Sorek, 50,000 membranes enclosed in vertical white cylinders, each 4 feet high and 16 inches wide, are whirring like jet engines. Electricity orlando The whole thing feels like a throbbing spaceship about to blast off. Electricity n and l The cylinders contain sheets of plastic membranes wrapped around a central pipe, and the membranes are stippled with pores less than a hundredth the diameter of a human hair. Electricity out Water shoots into the cylinders at a pressure of 70 atmospheres and is pushed through the membranes, while the remaining brine is returned to the sea.

At the Sorek desalination plant, membrane filters enclosed in white cylinders separate salt from Mediterranean seawater, producing much-needed freshwater for human consumption. 1 unit electricity cost in bangalore Photo by Andrew Lavin.

Desalination used to be an expensive energy hog, but the kind of advanced technologies being employed at Sorek have been a game changer. Electricity outage austin Water produced by desalination costs just a third of what it did in the 1990s. Gas kinetic energy formula Sorek can produce a thousand liters of drinking water for 58 cents. A level physics electricity equations Israeli households pay about US$30 a month for their water — similar to households in most U.S. Electricity worksheets for 4th grade cities, and far less than Las Vegas (US$47) or Los Angeles (US$58).

The International Desalination Association claims that 300 million people get water from desalination, and that number is quickly rising. Gas out game instructions IDE, the Israeli company that built Ashkelon, Hadera and Sorek, recently finished the Carlsbad desalination plant in Southern California, a close cousin of its Israel plants, and it has many more in the works. Gas density Worldwide, the equivalent of six additional Sorek plants are coming online every year. Types of electricity The desalination era is here.

What excites Bar-Zeev the most is the opportunity for water diplomacy.What excites Bar-Zeev the most is the opportunity for water diplomacy. Electricity merit badge pamphlet pdf Israel supplies the West Bank with water, as required by the 1995 Oslo II Accords, but the Palestinians still receive far less than they need. Electricity jeopardy Water has been entangled with other negotiations in the ill-fated peace process, but now that more is at hand, many observers see the opportunity to depoliticize it. Electricity static electricity Bar-Zeev has ambitious plans for a Water Knows No Boundaries conference in 2018, which will bring together water scientists from Egypt, Turkey, Jordan, Israel, the West Bank and Gaza for a meeting of the minds.

Even more ambitious is the US$900 million Red Sea–Dead Sea Canal, a joint venture between Israel and Jordan to build a large desalination plant on the Red Sea, where they share a border, and divide the water among Israelis, Jordanians and the Palestinians. Gas density units The brine discharge from the plant will be piped 100 miles north through Jordan to replenish the Dead Sea, which has been dropping a meter per year since the two countries began diverting the only river that feeds it in the 1960s. Electricity explained By 2020, these old foes will be drinking from the same tap.

On the far end of the Sorek plant, Bar-Zeev and I get to share a tap as well. Electricity png Branching off from the main line where the Sorek water enters the Israeli grid is a simple spigot, a paper cup dispenser beside it. Static electricity sound effect I open the tap and drink cup after cup of what was the Mediterranean Sea 40 minutes ago. Hp gas kushaiguda It tastes cold, clear and miraculous.

The contrasts couldn’t be starker. Gas natural A few miles from here, water disappeared and civilization crumbled. Gas what i smoke Here, a galvanized civilization created water from nothingness. La gas prices As Bar-Zeev and I drink deep, and the climate sizzles, I wonder which of these stories will be the exception, and which the rule.

The Israeli occupation authorities have taken over most of the water sources throughout the West Bank. Gas in back The amount of potable water from the Hill Aquifer, both west and east, averages 400 million cubic meters a year. Dynamic electricity examples Through the Oslo accords, Israel forced on the Palestinians an unequal division of water: 80% to Israel and 20% to the Palestinian Authority. Gas 78 industries The Palestinian negotiators agreed to this discriminating condition, assuming that the permanent agreements would change conditions and the division would become equal.

Following over-pumping from the aquifer, the salinization over time of local water wells and loss of water due to faulty pipes and theft, the above data have deteriorated so that today the relative water division between Israel and the PA stands at 86/14 respectively. I feel electricity in my body Needless to emphasize that this rate includes the needs of occupation and settlement.

Potable water consumption in Israel and the settlements averages 183 liters a day per person. Gas after eating dairy This includes domestic water needs for the home, and water for schools, hospitals, etc.

In the Palestinian Authority potable water consumption amounts to a mere 73 liters a day, and this includes water in homes, schools, hospitals and for industry needs as well. Electricity pictures information This is less than the minimal amount stipulated by UN World Health Organization as needed per person a day.

Certain communities, especially in the Palestinian Jordan Valley and the South Hebron Hills consume between 20 and 50 liters a day per person. Electricity lesson plans for 5th grade For example – a shepherd in the Palestinian Jordan Valley with 11 persons and 300 sheep and goats consume about 35 liters per person and 8 liter per sheep/goat a day and we are not even at the height of summer yet.

In the West bank 113,000 people are not connected to the water grid, and 50,000 of those are in Area C (officially under Israel’s administrative and security responsibility). Gas bloating pregnancy Not being connected to the water grid means people are forced to transport water from a distance by tankers, at prices that amount to 30-50 NIS ($7-$13) per liter.

There is no shortage of drinkable water in Israel. C gastronomie limonest In the past few years, Israel has developed technologies for wastewater purification and water desalination. Gas 99 cents An amount of 400 million cubic meters of purified wastewater is insterted into the groundwater and stored in resevoirs every year, to be used for agriculture.