Did columbus find an ancient mosque in cuba – jason colavito gas density and molar mass


Now that would be a surprising turn of events were it true. So where did Mroueh get his information? His source, he says, is Nigel Davies’s Voyagers to the New World (1979), a book that actually sought to debunk most trans-Atlantic contact theories. I can’t find a reference to this claim in the book, but Google’s search function may have missed it. Other sources attribute the claim to Ivan van Sertima, but in what publication I do not know. That isn’t important though because pretty much everything Mroueh reports is utterly wrong.

First, October 21, 1492 was not a Monday. The actual date of the event in question was Monday, October 29, 1492. gas vs electric heat Columbus and his crew were sailing near a particularly pleasant river that he had named San Salvador. There he encountered the source of Mroueh’s fictitious claim, as given (in the third person, from the redaction of Bartolome de las Casas) in his journal of his first voyage, describing what historians now believe is the region near Bariay, not Gibara, as Mroueh—following older sources—claimed:

Remarking on the position of the river and port, to which he gave the name of San Salvador, he describes its mountains as lofty and beautiful, like the Pena de las Enamoradas, and one of them has another little hill on its summit, like a graceful mosque. The other river and port, in which he now was, has two round mountains to the S.W., and a fine low cape running out to the W.S.W.

But let’s take a moment to consider the impact of this dumb idea. First, and most disturbingly, this idea has been repeated time and again on the internet and in Islamic literature as support for the idea of a preexisting Islamic claim to the Americas predating European claims. (Native Americans, in this view, still don’t count.) It shows up in Christine Huda Dodge’s introduction to Islam, The Everything Understanding Islam Book (2003), and in Islamic websites far and wide. gas density The Cuban government has done little to counter the speculation, and some scattered reports, including one in Frederick William Dame’s Muslim Discovery of America (2013), suggest that Cuba favors such speculation as a way of increasing financial ties with Arab nations.

On the limits where these two seas, the Mediterranean and the Ocean join, pillars of copper and stone, have been erected by King Hirakl the giant [i.e. Heracles]. Upon these pillars are inscriptions and figures, which show with their hands that one cannot go further, and that it is impracticable to navigate beyond the Mediterranean into that sea (the ocean), for no vessel sails on it: there is no cultivation nor a human being, and the sea has no limits neither in its depths nor extent, for its end is unknown. This is the sea of darkness, also called the green sea or the surrounding sea. Some say that these pillars are not on this strait, but in some islands of the ocean and their coast.

Some people consider this sea as the origin of all others. 3 gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect There are some wonderful stories related respecting it, for which we refer the reader to our book the Akhbár ez-zemán; there he will find an account of those crews who have risked their lives in navigating this sea, and who of them have escaped, and who have been shipwrecked, also what they have encountered and seen. Such an adventurer was a Moor of Spain, of the name of Khoshkhash. He was a young man of Cordoba: having assembled some young men they went on board a vessel which they had ready on the ocean, and nobody knew for a long time what had become of them. At length they came back loaded with rich booty. Their history is well known among the people of el-Andalos (the Moors in Spain). (Chapter 12, trans. Aloys Sprenger, pp. 282-283)

This is the oldest text advocates use to claim a Muslim voyage to America, and a truncated translation, comprising only the last few sentences, appeared in 1968 in a Journal of the Muslim Students’ Association article by Mohammed Hamidullah about the “Muslim Discovery of America before Columbus” and thereafter became canonical alternative history.

Alternative thinkers have read into this story a voyage to the Americas and back, though it’s clear from the first paragraph, often omitted, that Masudi himself assumed this impossible and that at any rate no regular commerce across the ocean was occurring. If this voyage ever really happened, it’s possible it actually went along the old Carthaginian route of Hanno toward sub-Saharan Africa, where medieval African kingdoms were known to have great wealth. hp gas online refill booking status Had Khoshkhash (also spelled Khashkhash) actually thought he had voyaged across the Atlantic, it surely would have occurred to Masudi to note that there were humans of some sort on the other side of the “limitless” ocean.

I have been exposed to any number of the silly urban legends and folk beliefs of the region and this is not one I’d heard. People in the Arab world are usually very enthused about sharing facts or "facts" which aggrandize the accomplishments of the region, and/or which are taken to support the validity of Islam. A favorite claim of mine is the literal belief in djinn (genies), who are said to favor running water or pipes to hang out in. They are named in the Quran along with angels and people etc and therefore must exist. Thus I’ve been presented "actual photos of djinn" printed out from Islamic sites which are actually stills from the original Creature from the Black Lagoon movie. The fin-hands and gill-neck are said to jibe with the water claim.

Interestingly even without the mosque nor any claim of contact, people who would not have had contact with Muslims to that point would likely be considered a form of latent or ‘natural’ Muslim. Likewise Jews and Christians who lived and died before the advent of Islam are retroactively considered to have been Muslims. This is said to be the normal state of people (and animals for that matter) unless misled by knowing apostasy. This seems therefore more to lean toward an Arab ethnic pride claim than a religious pride one.

I doubt the authenticity of this stone as a runestone of any sort. electricity production in the us It is clearly carved, yes, but even in the purported original photos, the pattern does not seem to match the purported transcription of runes below. I can say with some authority that the "face" is just a very normal human trait of seeing patterns in randomness; the human brain is hardwired to recognize faces before anything else, so there are a LOT of miscues during an individual’s lifetime. The profile photos make it clear that the surface is more or less smooth, which makes the "face" merely the natural coloring of the rock. I would say that the band around it is more like a feather pattern than writing in any language, but without being able to see more than a series of photos–that the article itself even says not to strictly trust–clearly either I nor anyone else can be definitive. k gas station Nonetheless, I also find it highly suspicious that something supposedly so "important" was "defaced by acid" later while two scientists were "studying" it. If I heard such a story without photographs existing, I would look at the storyteller and call them an outright liar. With the photographs, I have to say that it sounds more like "I made this thing and took photographs of it, then destroyed it so nobody could look close enough to see that I used a dental drill on it."

This is however followed up by the story The Golden Helmet (1952) (not a sequel to Luck of the North though), where Donald Duck finds a map, that prooves that America was discovered by the Viking Olaf the Blue, and thus his descendants – in this case whoever holds the Golden Helmet – becomes the "owner" and ruler of America. This naturally tempts the possessor with corrupting power etc.

Especially in the second story Barks explores the idea of why it is important to be the discoverer of America, because it grants you rights to America – or at least validates your presence in America (as Jason mentioned in a comment above). This phenomenon also occurs in a different form, where it becomes a matter of discovering the discoverer – not so much to establish your presence in the new lands, but to gain some ownership through the act of discovering. If you cannot discover the object yourself (for instance America), then you can discover the first discoverer and gain fame for that instead. It results in works like "1421 – The Year China discovered America", but it can also be found in litterature on vikings and the discovery of America, where you will find the authors – often unaware seemingly – tries to find the first "white" something: The first white man to see America, the first white man to set foot on America, the first white woman in America, the first white child born in America etc. It is often just a throwaway line the text, but it is there.