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The most common volume structure for a single hard drive is a single partition, where the drive appears to the computer to be a single drive. electricity omd It’s possible to partition a drive so the computer sees it as two or more volumes. Partitioning separates sections of the drive from each other so each has its own volume information and directory. Some use partitions as a strategy for organizing their media or to create an additional bootable backup of the operating system. Should I partition my drive?

While it used to be pretty common for advanced computer users to partition drives for performance reasons, that’s less common now. We generally recommend that there’s little reason to partition a drive, except for certain backup tasks, and those who need to wring every possible performance advantage out of a drive (and who are willing to spend a lot of time to achieve this performance.)

Some backup arrangements need to have an entire volume set aside. Apple’s Time Machine, for instance, will not let you use a single volume to backup more than one computer. If you want to send Time Machine backups from multiple computers to a single drive, you’ll first want to make a partition on the drive for each computer. This is a reasonably common arrangement for bootable backup software, and it’s the most common reason to partition drives.

The acronym JBOD stands for "Just a Bunch of Disks", and it refers to a configuration of multiple disks that retain their identity as individual disks. Each physical disk is a logical disk, as shown in Figure 3. It is the simplest arrangement for multi-disk storage, and the easiest to configure, upgrade, and repair. JBOD is a good configuration for photographers to use as primary storage for a couple reasons.

• It’s simple to purchase and set up. Making an informed choice on the best RAID implementation, on the other hand, is not something that should be done without a good understanding of the hardware and software under the hood. Few photographers are well equipped to make this decision properly. If you plan to use the drive for video editing, however, seek out the help of an informed professional who can ensure the drive meets the performance requirements for HD video workflows.

• It’s generally much quicker and easier to upgrade capacity with JBOD. A traditional RAID setup must be rebuilt completely (all data moved off, all new drives installed) to upgrade storage size. electricity 4th grade powerpoint This makes the upgrade process a difficult, time-consuming, and possibly dangerous process. With JBOD, you simply add another drive or replace one drive with another drive of larger capacity.

Some RAID systems write data to multiple drives for added safety. This means that if a drive fails, all the data can still exist on the device. These mirrored or parity RAID setups can be a good choice to store Working files in a mission-critical situation, such as a studio with lots of deadline pressure. And this kind of RAID is essential in a corporate environment where 24/7 uptime is necessary. RAID for speed

RAID 0 treats several drives as a single drive in order to speed up reading from and writing to the drive. Basically, it breaks up a file into several parts and writes those parts to multiple drives simultaneously. While it increases speed, it also increases risk. A failure of one drive destroys all the data. RAID 0 is also used to create a single large volume.

RAID 0 is generally not particularly beneficial for most photography workflows. For video editing, a RAID 0 configuration is very common and is often a performance requirement, particularly for the media files you are using for an editing session. electricity transmission vs distribution Just be certain that the data is backed up onto an additional drive due to the somewhat volatile nature of RAID 0. RAID Level 1 (mirrored RAID)

RAID 1 writes the same data to multiple drives to help ensure seamless operation in the event of drive mechanism failure. Mirrored RAID is appropriate for operations that truly need 24/7 functionality, or for files that are works in progress and might represent a whole day’s work. Even with mirrored RAID, you still need to have a set of offline backups because mirroring does not protect against some of the most common causes of data loss (theft, virus, and power surge). It also provides no protection against human error, such as accidentally erasing or downsizing a file. RAID Level 5

RAID 5 provides a combination of striping and mirroring, resulting in a large single volume with redundant protection. A Level 5 system should be able to survive the loss of any single drive since a parity file (a copy of the data) is written to each of the other drives. Level 5 is probably the most popular current RAID choice for large data storage. The parity file is a compressed copy of the data; it can store the information in a small space, but requires computation to write and read. RAID Level 6

This is a configuration with multiple sets of striped drives for speed and redundancy. In a four-drive RAID 0+1, a pair of drives is striped for increased speed. Those drives are then mirrored to the other pair for redundancy. This is faster than RAID 5 or 6 since there is no parity file to be computed or decoded, but it is not quite as efficient.

Only move to RAID because there is a good reason to. Good reasons are that you need the speed, a single large volume, or that you need the 24/7 uptime. “It’s just easier to deal with” is probably not the right reason. Know if you are shopping mainly for speed, size, redundancy or some combination. All hardware-based drive spanning is proprietary

While there are common terms for RAID levels, it’s important to understand that each RAID 1, 5, 6 or 10 system is a proprietary system. You cannot take drives out of one RAID 5 and install the drives in an enclosure made by another manufacturer, and expect them to work. In each case, a RAID controller is used to split, manage and reconstruct the data pieces back into files.

Software RAID has the advantage of being cheaper, since it can often be configured by simply adding additional internal drives in a tower or using multiple external drives and the system software (or a utility) to set it up. This can be an easy way to provide a speed boost for video editing. If you are using SSDs, software RAID is the preferred method, since it can take advantage of the TRIM control that the OS uses to optimize the drives.

Hardware RAID can be controlled by a PCIe or an ExpressCard expansion card or by a controller that lives inside a RAID enclosure. power outage houston txu This allows the use of an external enclosure for added expansion, as well as the use of RAID with computers that don’t have space for additional internal drives. Do some research before you commit to a RAID device. The cheapest one may provide a lot of headaches in the long term.

There is a difference between hardware controllers. There are cheap ones from companies you have never heard of, enterprise-level devices from well-known brands, and everything in between. WiebeTech is a company that makes, sells, and supports its own line of hardware RAID boxes (shown in Figure 5). Keep in mind that if the RAID card fails, it’s only remotely possible to access the data on the drives if you can get the identical RAID card as a replacement.

At first glance, Drobo acts like a RAID — it spans multiple drives to make one logical drive. electricity number Drobo offers units that hold 4, 5, 8 and 12 drives, although you typically only need to load two drives to start. A Drobo device offers the same kind of parity protection you get with RAID 5, where the data can survive the loss of any single drive. Most Drobo units can also be set up to survive the loss of any two drives, like in RAID 6.

However, Drobo offers some things RAID does not. It can intelligently make use of drives of different sizes (unlike RAID, where all drives are chopped down to the size of the smallest drive). When you need to upgrade the capacity of your Drobo system, just take out the smallest drive and replace it with a larger one. The data will be swapped around, making the best use of the new drive space.

Drobo also has some very simple “gas gauge” lights that show you how full it is. As the disks get full, it will show you on the front of the box itself, as well as in the Drobo Dashboard software that comes with the unit. Drobo offers several different connections across its product line including USB2, USB3, FireWire 800, eSATA, and iSCSI. The iSCSI connection can be used to connect the unit to a network or a computer’s gigabit Ethernet port.

Drobo also has some intelligent power consumption features. e payment electricity bill bangalore It goes into a very low-power-draw sleep when not connected or not used, then wakes up when it’s needed. And because it is a standardized item, the controller card is likely to be available in the future, in the event that the one in your unit dies and you need to retrieve your data.

When working in video, storage can become a much more frequent decision point than with still photography. Video files are much larger than stills, therefore the chance of your needing more storage is much greater. Additionally, tasks like video editing can require specialized solutions in order to maintain the required constant data throughput. Determining how much storage you need

Knowing exactly how much storage you need is a tough challenge. It is a constant balancing act to make sure you have enough storage for your projects while at the same time not tying up money in drives that sit empty. Storage is a volatile market, one that typically sees prices falling but with unexpected upswings in cost from time to time. You need to balance these when a storage purchase is made. AJA Data Rate Calculator

The AJA Data Rate Calculator is a useful utility which is available for both desktop and mobile applications. This utility lets you specify several attributes about the video signal, such as frame size, rate, and compression type. It can then provide an estimate for total storage needed based on a time duration. While the software can’t tell you how much footage you’re going to shoot, you can plug in known values for a completed shoot to estimate the cost of transcoding, if that is required. Within a short period of shooting video, you’ll also be able to estimate how much footage you’ll acquire, together with a gross time estimate. 

When you playback video, you’re essentially asking the drive to load hundreds or thousands of frames sequentially. When this rapid playback is combined with decompressing the various codecs applied to video, you can put an amazing load on a drive. electricity definition science This load is known as data rate. The higher the data rate of a clip, the faster the drive has to be. So if your clip has a data rate of 5 MB/s the drive has to be able to load or playback at least 5 MB/s.

For most DSLR video workflows, you’ll have data rates between 4 MB/s and 30 MB/s. Keep in mind that often times when editing you’ll be working multiple layers of video and audio simultaneously. So, if you have a file with a data rate of 20 MB/s but you are compositing three clips together to create a look, the drive now has to be able to play back 60 MB/s, because the video clips are playing simultaneously. And every cut you make places further strain on the drive(s), as the system has to seek and serve each individual piece of video scattered throughout the drive. (These demands become very visible as you try to edit video from multiple clips together, apply transitions, or use special effects.)

Most modern hard drives (especially 7200 RPM or faster SATA drives) can handle the load from a few streams of native DSLR video reasonably well, if there are not too many cuts. For the fastest speed, consider investing in a striped RAID solution with high-performance SSDs for your Working files. Of course, RAID 0 is a comparatively delicate storage arrangement, so good automatic backup is an absolute necessity. Outputting a video project to tape requires extraordinary drives

For these reasons, the use of a high-performance storage system, typically a RAID 0, becomes an absolute must. Typically, a user must first render all elements in a timeline to reduce the burden on the drives and system for real-time performance. Additionally, an audio mixdown is often created to simplify the audio burden. Finally, a specialized video card, such as one made by AJA, Matrox or BlackMagic, is likely required to convert the video signal and control the deck’s recording functions.