Division street bridge collapse of 1915 news khq.com electricity load profile

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As usual my motorman, John Becher, and I reported for work at 5 a.m. We were carrying the first inbound passenger load, all men, on the old Aster Street line. Snow had gas x tablets himalaya fallen during the night and freezing temperatures caused a fog to rise from the river as we approached the bridge. It was exactly 6:11 in the morning. We were nearing the center of the span when suddenly, without warning, there was a shudder and almost instantly everything went black. A large steel girder from the collapsing bridge slashed across our car, cutting off everything above the seats. In the darkness there was nothing we could do, as the car quickly sank into the icy water, coming to rest on the bridge floor as it sank to the river bottom. All of us who made it were lucky to have come out alive. I shall never forget to my dying day the crashing steel, the awful sudden darkness lighted only by flying sparks made by electrical short circuits gas kinetic energy formula, and the screams of the injured and dying ( Spokesman-Review, December 12, 1965)

Davis, one of the less injured, helped some of the other survivors get out of the streetcar as water poured in, then guided them across a twisted girder that had fallen, forming a sort of bridge between the streetcar and the north bank of the river. During this rescue, ice started forming on the spray-covered metal. One victim reported that electricity deregulation choices and challenges his wet gloves froze to the girder to which he was clinging.

The Fire Department, unfortunately, went first to the south end of the bridge, from which they could not reach the victims. It took about 30 minutes for them to arrive at the north end via another bridge. From there, they were able to remove the 12 injured passengers and crew by means of ladders lowered hp gas kushaiguda down the slippery riverbank. According to varying newspaper accounts, the five dead were either killed outright by the fallen girder that slashed through the top of the streetcar or trapped underneath it and drowned. The collapsed span had severed electric lines as well as gas and water mains, complicating rescue efforts and disrupting services in a wide section of the city.

If anything could be called fortuitous about the tragedy, it would be its early morning timing: Had the collapse occurred later, far more people would have been at risk. It was, after all, the last f gas regulations 2015 shopping Saturday before Christmas. Investigators soon established that no automobiles or pedestrians had been on the bridge at the time of the collapse.

I do not believe the design was in any way weak … the bridge has [never] been subjected to the working load it was designed to carry, 4800 pounds per linear foot, a weight greater than any modern standard railway freight train. … When the bars broke precipitating the structure into the river they were electricity and magnetism worksheets 8th grade only carrying about one-seventh the load that would normally be necessary to break [them]. … The bridge was damaged in the flood of 1894 … [when] an old Howe truss railroad span was washed out, came down the stream and struck the specific bars that broke Saturday morning a heavy blow. As a result they were abnormally distorted and bent out of shape electricity word search ks2 or broken entirely, and have since been re-welded. … The upstream bar of the fractured pair … shows today the marks of a heavy blow on the upstream side ( Spokesman-Review, December 21, 1915).

The Washington Water Power Company had nothing to do with the designing or construction of the Division Street Bridge [or its maintenance] except to keep up the floor system under the company’s tracks. This system was renewed ortega y gasset obras completas recently and put into the best possible condition. We do not yet know the cause of this distressing accident, but it is evident that the company was in no way responsible for it Spokane Daily Chronicle, December 18, 1915).

Upon first examining the wreckage, Spokane City Engineer Morton Macartney stated: The I-bars, which are steel braces running lengthwise la gasolina lyrics translation with the bridge, were snapped off as if they were icicles ( Spokane Daily Chronicle, December 18, 1915). The day after the tragedy he speculated: It is possible that some construction defect might have existed in the bridge for years and escaped the human eye in the very closest inspection ( Spokesman-Review, December 19, 1915). Ironically, the collapse occurred only a week after city workers had finished strengthening the bridge’s steel wireless electricity how it works supports. During this, the bridge was entirely stripped of its timbers and every opportunity afforded for a thorough examination ( Spokesman-Review, December 19, 1915).

By the next day, outside experts brought in by Macartney had concluded that granulation or crystallization  ( Spokesman-Review, December 20, 1915) of the steel caused the tragedy. Macartney explained that this condition (today called metal fatigue) might develop over time with vibration or might be fixed in the metal at the time of rolling. In either case, he insisted: No amount of examination could have revealed the defects ( Spokane Daily Chronicle, December 20, 1915). Nevertheless, the bold front page headline of the day read: City Faces Big Damage Claims as Result of Bridge Collapse.

The people of Spokane soon petitioned for a concrete bridge to replace the electricity meaning destroyed steel bridge. In the meantime, the city hurriedly erected a creaking and shivering temporary span of timber that did not inspire the confidence of streetcar riders ( Spokesman-Review, December 12, 1965). For the permanent bridge, City Engineer Macartney proposed a barrel type plan consisting of three main arches filled with earth and paved, plus a number of smaller arches. It would be 600 feet long, approximately 270 feet spanning the Spokane gaz 67b for sale River. The roadway would be 50 feet wide, and there would be two sidewalks each nine feet wide. Washington Paving Company of Seattle was awarded the contract of $108,443 and completed the new bridge in 1917.