Eastern europe – new world encyclopedia astrid y gaston lima reservations

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In some sources, Eastern Europe is defined as the nations bordered by the Baltic and Barents seas on the north o gascon; the Adriatic, Black, and Caspian seas and the Caucasus Mountains on the south; and the Ural Mountains. Using this definition, the nations of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia), which the UNSD categorizes as Southern Europe, would be included. This definition also includes the Baltic republics of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, considered by the UN as Northern Europe. The Transcaucasian countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia are included in this definition, though they are defined by the UN as western Asia.

The term Eastern Europe is often used to refer to all European countries that were previously ruled by communist regimes (the Eastern Bloc), due to the concept of the “Iron Curtain” separating Western Europe and Soviet-controlled Eastern Europe throughout the period of the Cold War. Prior to German reunification, East Germany was often described as an Eastern European country.

As a term its origins are fairly recent. For many years Europe was divided on a North-South axis. With the southern Mediterranean eur j gastroenterology hepatology impact factor states having much in common, and the northern Atlantic Ocean and Baltic Sea bordering states also having much in common. The term first arose in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to describe an area that was falling behind the rest of Europe economically. It was seen as a region where serfdom and autocratic governments persisted long after those notions were fading in the west. It was always a very vague notion, however, and electricity magnetism and light many countries in the region did not fit the stereotypical view.

Much of Eastern Europe has ties to both the East and West. While all of the countries were heavily influenced by Roman Catholicism or Protestantism and have close historical and cultural ties to Germany, Italy, France or Scandinavia, many countries also had relations with the East. Russia was under the control of the Mongols for centuries and inherited political and social conventions from them. Further south, the influence of the Ottoman Empire and Islam was strong. The nations of the Balkans as well as Hungary and Romania were all at one time controlled by the Turks.

As a cultural and ethnic concept, the term Eastern Europe was defined by nineteenth-century German nationalists to be synonymous with Slavic Europe, as opposed to Germanic (Western) Europe. This concept was re-enforced during the years leading up to World War II and was often used in a racist terminology to characterize Eastern/Slavic culture as being backward and inferior to Western/Germanic culture, language, and customs. Eastern Europe would then refer to the imaginary line which divided predominantly German lands from predominantly Slavic lands. The dividing line has thus changed over time as a result of the World Wars, as well as numerous expulsions and genocides.

The concept of Eastern Europe was greatly strengthened by the domination of the region by the Soviet Union after the Second power in costa rica World War and the takeover of the nations of the region by communist governments. The idea of the “Iron Curtain” separating Eastern and Western Europe was an extremely common view throughout the Cold War. This strict dualism caused problems, however, as it failed to account for the complexities of the region. For instance, Yugoslavia and Albania refused to be controlled by Moscow, but this division was often ignored by many in the West.

As the ideological division of the Cold gas vs electric oven for baking cakes War has now disappeared, the cultural division of Europe between Western Christianity, on the one hand, and Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Islam, on the other, has reemerged. It follows the so-called “Huntington line” of clashing civilizations corresponding roughly to the eastern boundary of Western Christianity in the year 1500. This line runs along what are now the eastern boundaries separating Norway, Finland, Estonia and Latvia from Russia, continues east of Lithuania, cuts in northwestern Ukraine, swings westward separating Transylvania from the rest of Romania, and then along the line now separating Slovenia, Croatia and northern Serbia from the rest of ex-Yugoslavia. In the Balkans this line coincides with the historic border between the Hungarian Kingdom (later Habsburg) and Ottoman empires, whereas in the north it marks the then eastern boundaries of Kingdom of Sweden and Teutonic Order, and the subsequent spread of Protestant Reformation. The peoples to the west and north of the Huntington line are Protestant or Catholic; they shared most of the common experiences of Western European history— feudalism electricity worksheets grade 9, the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Enlightenment, the French Revolution, and the Industrial Revolution. Countries and territories

Manufacturing industries throughout Eastern Europe are an important factor electricity questions and answers pdf in regional economics. The Czech Republic is the leading industrial nation in the western section, while Ukraine, the Ural Mountains, and the land along the Volga River are the major urban-industrial regions in the east. However, many of the former Soviet controlled nations are dealing with excessive pollution and significant environmental problems due to lax industrial controls during the Soviet era.

The region has excellent commercial forests and agricultural areas, though the growing season in the north is short. The Danube valley countries produce corn and wheat. Rye, potatoes, and livestock are important commodities. Ukraine, known for years as the Breadbasket of the Soviet Union, is one of the most important wheat producers in Europe.

Dominated throughout the twentieth century by the Soviet Union, politics in Eastern Europe has changed significantly since that nation’s collapse in 1991. When Mikhail Gorbachev instituted a number of socialist reforms, included was glasnost, which allowed for a limited amount of freedom of expression. Soon to follow was an open criticism of the regime and gas south cries for increased political and economic freedom. In 1989 government after government collapsed in Eastern Europe and political transformation began. The Belavezha Accords of December 1991 declared the Soviet Union officially dissolved and replaced by the Commonwealth of Independent States. This loose confederation attempted to assume some control and create stability during the period of transition.

It has been recommended that there are six core concepts that must be understood by citizens in a democratic society in order for them to function most p gasket 300tdi effectively in their respective societies. These concepts include representative democracy, constitutionalism (rule of law), rights within the parameters of liberalism, citizenship, civil society based on a free and open social system, and the market economy of a free and open economic system. [2]

These concepts must be re-learned by those Eastern European nations which were under Soviet control or effected by a socialist system where freedom was absent. Collaborative efforts conducted with western democracies have assisted both Poland and the Czech Republic to establish successful programs for democratic citizenship education. Notes